BALB/c mice made tolerant to A/J alloantigens by neonatal injection of (A/J x BALB/c)F1 spleen cells develop a host-versus-graft (HVG) disease due to the activation of donor B cells by a subset of host alloreactive helper T cells. We have investigated the effects of a single neonatal injection of the 145-2C11 anti-mouse CD3 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) on the establishment of allotolerance and on the development of the immunopathological features of HVG disease. First, this treatment did not modify the specific anti-donor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) unresponsiveness or the persistence of circulating immunoglobulins bearing donor allotype. Second, the hyper IgE, the hyper IgG1 and the increased expression of Ia antigens on B cells found in untreated HVG mice were not observed after injection of the 145-2C11 MoAb. Likewise, treated mice displayed lower levels of anti-DNA IgG antibodies and less glomerular immune deposits as compared with untreated HVG mice. We conclude that the administration of the anti-CD3 MoAb did not interfere with the induction of allotolerance but exerts a pronounced inhibitory effect on the associated immunopathological syndrome.