Modulation of glutamate receptor functions by glutathione

  title={Modulation of glutamate receptor functions by glutathione},
  author={S. S. Oja and R{\'e}ka Jan{\'a}ky and Vince Varga and Pirjo Saransaari},
  journal={Neurochemistry International},

The Glutathione System: A New Drug Target in Neuroimmune Disorders

GSH depletion and concomitant increase in O&NS and mitochondrial dysfunctions play a role in the pathophysiology of diverse neuroimmune disorders, including depression, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and Parkinson’s disease, suggesting that depleted GSH is an integral part of these diseases.

Counteracting Effects of Glutathione on the Glutamate-Driven Excitation/Inhibition Imbalance in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A 7T MRS and Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

This model explains how higher levels of GSH can reverse the downstream pathophysiological effects of a hyperglutamatergic state in FES, and provides an initial insight into the possible mechanistic effect of antioxidant system on the excitatory overdrive in the salience network (dACC-AI).

Glutathione in Brain Disorders and Aging

This review will highlight the common signaling cascades that regulate glutathione in neurons and glia, its functions as a neuronal regulator in homeostasis and metabolism, and finally a mechanistic recapitulation ofglutathione signaling, which will put glutathion’s role in normal aging and neurological disorders development into perspective.

Thinking Outside the Cleft to Understand Synaptic Activity: Contribution of the Cystine-Glutamate Antiporter (System xc−) to Normal and Pathological Glutamatergic Signaling

The major cellular components that regulate glutamate homeostasis, including glutamate release by system xc− are discussed, followed by an in-depth discussion of system x c− as it relates to glutamate release, cystine transport, and glutathione synthesis.

Involvement of Amino-Acid Side Chains of Membrane Proteins in the Binding of Glutathione to Pig Cerebral Cortical Membranes

The results indicate that cysteinyl side chains and disulfide bonds are essential in the binding of GSH to membrane proteins and that arginyl and lysylSide chains may also be directly involved in this process.

Ammonia toxicity to the brain and creatine.

Glutathione Pathways in the Brain

Results on the export of GSH and GSSG from brain cells as well as on the functions of extracellular GSH in the brain are reviewed and implications of disturbed GSH pathways in brain for neurodegenerative diseases will be discussed.

Zinc toxicity on neonatal cortical neurons: involvement of glutathione chelation

The results suggest that zinc non‐enzymatically depleted GSH, an intrinsic factor for neuron survival, leading to activation of the cellular death signal and eventually neuronal death.



Glutathione and Signal Transduction in the Mammalian CNS

The results demonstrate that GSH binds via its γ‐glutamyl moiety to ionotropic glutamate receptors, and support a reevaluation of the role of GSH in the nervous system in which GSH may be involved both directly and indirectly in synaptic transmission.

Molecular diversity of glutamate receptors and implications for brain function.

The molecular and functional diversity of the glutamate receptors is reviewed and their implications for integrative brain function are discussed.

L-cysteine, a bicarbonate-sensitive endogenous excitotoxin.

L-cysteine is naturally present in the human brain and in the environment, and is much more powerful than beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a bicarbonate-dependent excitotoxin, which has been implicated in an adult neurodegenerative disorder endemic to Guam.

NMDA receptor redox sites: are they targets for selective neuronal protection?