Early generation of nitric oxide contributes to copper tolerance through reducing oxidative stress and cell death in hulless barley roots
- Yanfeng Hu
- Journal of Plant Research
Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive, membrane-permeable free radical, which has recently emerged as an important signalling molecule and antioxidant. Here we investigated the protective effect of NO against the toxicity caused by excess CuSO4 (50 μM) in the adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. It was found that NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), was effective in reducing Cu-induced toxicity in the mountain ginseng adventitious roots. Protective effect of SNP, as indicated by extent of lipid peroxidation, was reversed by incorporation of 2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO), a NO scavenger, in the medium suggesting that the protective effect of SNP is attributable to NO released, which was revealed from in situ confocal laser scanning microscopic localization of NO in the adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. Results obtained in the present study suggest that reduction of excess Cu-induced toxicity by SNP is most likely mediated through the modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in H2O2 detoxification (catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase) and in the maintenance of cellular redox couples (glutathione reductase), and contents of molecular antioxidants (particularly non-protein thiol, ascorbate and its redox status). Exogenous NO supply also improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, an enzyme responsible for O2 ·− dismutation, and NADPH oxidase, an enzyme responsible for O2 ·− generation, in excess Cu supplied adventitious roots of mountain ginseng.