The studies were conducted on noninfected and Escherichia (E) coli-infected mice treated with orbifloxacin administered orally 10 times at 24-hr intervals at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Orbifloxacin did not change the activity of peritoneal macrophages in noninfected mice. Administration of orbifloxacin in E. coli-infected mice modulated the effects of infection on the percentage of phagocyting macrophages, the percentage of NBT-positive cells, and nitric oxide production. Orbifloxacin did not affect the synthesis and release of interleukin-1 by macrophages. Orbifloxacin exerted a modulating effect on the subsets of lymphocytes in thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node cells in noninfected and E. coli-infected mice.