Modulating effects of a cold water stimulus on opioid effects in volunteers

  title={Modulating effects of a cold water stimulus on opioid effects in volunteers},
  author={Kim M. Conley and Alicia Y. Toledano and Jeffrey L. Apfelbaum and James P. Zacny},
The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of a painful stimulus on morphine and butorphanol effects in healthy non-drug abusing volunteers. Thirteen subjects with no history of opiate dependence participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial in which each subject received saline, 2 mg/70 kg butorphanol, and 10 mg/70 kg morphine, IV, in each of two conditions, periodic forearm immersions into either ice-cold water (2°C) or into warm water (37°C… CONTINUE READING


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