Dietary polyphenols have been considered as novel prebiotics, and polyphenols could exert their functions through modulating intestinal microbiota. The diverse bioactivities of kudingcha could derive from its phenolic compounds, but the effects of dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) from Ilex kudingcha on intestinal microbiota have not been investigated. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing and anaerobic fermentation in vitro were utilized to investigate the microecology-modulating function of I. kudingcha diCQAs. As a result, diCQAs raised the diversity and exhibited a more considerable impact than a carbon source on the microbial profile. DiCQAs increased the relative abundances of Alistipes, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Butyricimonas, Clostridium sensu stricto, Escherichia/Shigella, Parasutterella, Romboutsia, Oscillibacter, Veillonella, Phascolarctobacterium, Lachnospiracea incertae sedis, Gemmiger, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus and decreased the relative abundances of Ruminococcus, Anaerostipes, Dialister, Megasphaera, Megamonas, and Prevotella. DiCQAs also affected the generation of short-chain fatty acids through microbiota. The contents of acetic and lactic acids were raised, while the production of propionic and butyric acids was reduced. Conclusively, diCQAs from I. kudingcha had significant modulating effects on intestinal microbiota in vitro, which might be the fundamental of diCQAs exerting their bioactivities.