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Lecture 4 Linear Transport Model Non-Linear phenomenon Exponential Change Capacitors

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## Lecture 4 Linear Transport Model Non-Linear phenomenon Exponential Change Capacitors

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**Lecture 4 Linear Transport Model Non-Linear phenomenon**Exponential Change Capacitors Orpheus Mall – Physics 7B**Linear Transport Model: Flux = j**Flux is the Amount of stuff (Fluid, Current, Thermal Energy, Particles, Fields – 7C) passing through a given area in a given amount of time. More simply, flux is the flow per unit area.**Linear Transport Model: Fluids**What is the flux at this point? • Q: What causes flow in fluids? Δ(head) • Q: What resists/allows flow? Rf / kf • Q: What flows? Vol. of fluid: V/Δt = If • Thus Flux should be a property of these values • Relating all these we already have: • From here we can determine flux through any point of the pipe using: • We get: • However, that’s for a section of the pipe, we want the flux at any point in the pipe. Thus we take the limit as ΔL becomes small: • This equation is simply Bernoulli's principle, but at a point rather than comparing two points!**Linear Transport Model: Electricity**• Q: What causes flow in a wire? ΔV • Q: What resists/allows flow? Re / ke • Q: What flows? – Charge: Q/Δt = Ie • Thus Flux should be a property of these values • Relating all these we have: • From here we can determine flux through any point of the resistor using: • We get: What is the flux at this point: • However, that’s for a section of the pipe, we want the flux at any point in the pipe. Thus we take the limit as ΔL becomes small: • This is simply ohm’s law, but at a point rather than comparing two points.**Heat: Conduction**• Heat always flows from areas of high T to areas of low T • Conductors – Metals: High heat conduction • Insulators – Wood, Ceramics: Low heat conduction • Typically materials that are good electric conductors are good heat conductors as well • Some notable exceptions: • Silver – has high electric conductivity but lower heat conductivity than diamond • Diamond – great conductor of heat, but has low electric resistivity High Temperature Low Temperature Q Heat transferred via thermal motion of electrons or atoms (oscillations – Phy-7A)**Heat: Convection**• Heat always flows from areas of high T to areas of low T • Heat is carried through motion of the medium (fluid motion) itself. • Thus viscosity has an effect on convection • The earth’s liquid iron outer core is responsible for the earth’s magnetic field that protects us from solar and cosmic radiation (Phy-7C) this convection is due to the heat transfer from the hot solid inner core to the cool lower mantle Heat transferred via fluidic motion http://www.nap.edu/books/12161/xhtml/images/p20015561g37001.jpg**Heat: Radiation**• Everything warm emits Infrared Radiation • Radiative heat needs no medium for transfer – can easily travel through space, i.e. heat from the sun. • Is part of the Electromagnetic spectrum: Infrared (IR) • Global warming is the reflection of IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gasses that otherwise would escape the earth. • IR is used in many applications such as military FLIR imaging systems Heat transferred via infrared radiation http://therawfeed.com/pix/thermal_imaging_camera.jpg http://energysavingclub.files.wordpress.com/2007/01/greenhouse_effect.gif**Linear Transport Model: Heat**High Temperature Low Temperature • Q: What causes flow in a rod? ΔT • Q: What resists/allows flow? Rt / kt • Q: What flows? – Heat: Eth/Δt = It • Thus Flux should be a property of these values • Relating all these we have: • From here we can determine flux through any point of the rod using: • We get: Q What is the flux at this point? • However, that’s for a section of the pipe, we want the flux at any point in the pipe. Thus we take the limit as ΔL becomes small: • This is simply ohm’s law, but at a point rather than comparing two points.**Linear Transport Model: Diffusion**High conc. of Br2 Low conc. of Br2 • Q: What causes flow in a wire? Δc • Q: What resists/allows flow? Rd / D • Q: What flows? Particles: #part/Δt = Id • Thus Flux should be a property of these values • Relating all these we have: • From here we can determine flux through any point of the tube using: • We get: What is the flux of particles at this point? • However, that’s for a section of the tube, we want the flux at any point in the tube. Thus we take the limit as ΔL becomes small: • This is known as Fick’s law where D is the diffusion constant. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7QsDs8ZRMI**Q: Why is it called the Linear Transport Model?**ϕ ϕ0 • The generalized Linear Transport Model equation for flux due to a potential difference phi is: • Where ϕ may stand for head, voltage, temperature, concentration, etc. What is ϕ as a function of x? −j/k = slope x • Q: What assumptions did we make in order to make the flow linear and the flow rate constant over time? • Infinite Source: Source doesn’t run out, so potential doesn’t change with time, so far we’ve assumed a steady-state. No dependence of flow on time. • Ideal flow (Laminar vs. Turbulent), negligible viscosity • Resistance is not dependent on the potential**Non-Linear Phenomenon – Non Ohmic Resistors**vdrift Vapplied - - - Ohmic resistors - - - - - • Ohm’s Law: • For a realistic Resistor thermal motion is dependent upon the current. • Current heats up resistor > higher thermal motion > lesser increase in current per increase in voltage. • Example: Computer Overheating - - - - - - - - - - - Imeasured Vapplied Non-ohmic resistors Semiconductors Imeasured**Non-Linear Phenomenon – Dependence on source**• Recall Toricelli's result • Note, for a realistic tank, the vB depends on the height of the fluid in the tank. Thus the flow rate changes with time! • More specifically we can say that the current depends upon the volume of fluid in the tank. • What function is it’s own derivative? Note V is volume not potential and the negative sign is for decrease in volume with time.**Exponential Change: Population Growth**Population p • The rate of increase of a population is proportional to the population. • Where p0 is the population at time t = 0 • Note: the time it takes for the population to double is known as doubling time, shown as t2 on the plot • Note: sometimes you’ll see equation 2 with the Greek letter tau τ known as the time constant. τis the amount of time it takes for the population to increase by a factor of e = 2.7183 ep0 2p0 p0 t2 τ Time t Note that there is an asymptote along the x axis It’s a good idea to know these!**Exponential Change: Nuclear Decay**Amount N • The rate of decay of a Radioactive isotope is proportional to the amount of material remaining • Note: the time it takes for the material to be reduced by ½ is called the half life, denoted by t½ • Note: sometimes you’ll see equation 2 with the Greek letter tau τ known as the time constant. τis the amount of time it takes for the material to decrease by a factor of e = 2.7183 N0 Note that there is an asymptote along the x axis N0/2 N0/e t1/2 τ Time t It’s a good idea to know these!**Exponential Change: Newton’s Law of Cooling**Temperature T • The rate of cooling of a warm beverage at room temperature is proportional to the temperature difference between the beverage and the room. • Note: the time it takes for the beverage to be cooled by ½ is called the half life, denoted by t½ • Note: sometimes you’ll see equation 2 with the Greek letter tau τ known as the time constant. τis the amount of time it takes for the temperature difference to decrease by a factor of e = 2.7183 ΔT0 Note that there is an asymptote at Trm ΔT0/2 ΔT0/e Trm t1/2 Time t τ**Exponential Change in Circuits: Capacitors**A | | | | | | | | | | + + + + + + + + + + -Q +Q • A parallel plate capacitor consists of two metallic plates, with area A, separated a distance d by a ‘dielectric’ insulator in the middle. • Q: What happens when we plug these plates into opposite terminals of a battery? • Charge starts to build up on the opposite plates. Thus the capacitance (capacity) of a capacitor is equal to the charge accumulated per voltage applied. • The build up of charge allows a capacitor to behave like a battery • Q: In which direction would a charged capacitor like to push the current? d - ε + Recall: Ohm’s Law Recall: for a resistor R was also dependent upon geometry Note that this is not the same ε as the battery**Exponential Change in Circuits: Capacitors**• Circuit Diagrams: Resistors • Resistors in Series (~2xL) • Resistors in parallel (~2xA) • Circuit Diagrams: Capacitors • Capacitors in parallel (~2xA) • Capacitors in series (~2xd)**Exponential Change in Circuits: Capacitors - Charging**• A Capacitor is a bit like a rechargeable battery once the switch is closed current rushes to charge the capacitor. • Q: As the Capacitor charges up, what direction does it try to push the current? • Q: When will the charging stop? • Q: Initially what is the voltage in the capacitor? What is the voltage in the resistor? What is the current in the circuit? • Q: At the end, what is the voltage in the capacitor? What is the current in the circuit? What is the voltage in the resistor? Q=CVC VR=IR ε=20V Voltage VC (V) Current I (A) ε/R ε Time t (s) Time t (s)**Exponential Change in Circuits: Capacitors - Discharging**VB=IRB • Now we use the charge stored up in the battery to light a bulb • Q: As the Capacitor discharges, what is the direction of the current? What happens after some time? • Q: Initially what is the voltage in the capacitor V0? What is the voltage in the bulb? What is the current in the circuit? • Q: At the end, what is the voltage in the capacitor? What is the current in the circuit? What is the voltage of the resistor? Q=CVC ε=20V Voltage VC (V) Current I (A) V0/RB V0 Time t (s) Time t (s)**Exponential Change in Circuits: Capacitors**• Charging and Discharging a capacitor: Summary**Capacitors: Energy Stored in a capacitor**Note: Since I is same for resistors in series, identical resistors in series will have the same power loss. Since V is the same for resistors in parallel, identical resistors in parallel will have the same power loss • Because resistors dissipate power, we wrote a an equation for the power dissipated in a Resistor: • Because capacitors are used to store charge and energy, we concentrate on the energy stored in a capacitor. • We imagine the first and the last electrons to make the journey to the capacitor. What are their ΔPE’s?ΔPEfirst=qΔV ,ΔV=20 ΔPElast=qΔV , ΔV=0Thus on average for the whole charge: Q=CVC VR=IR ε=20V