Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND): Observational Phenomenology and Relativistic Extensions

  title={Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND): Observational Phenomenology and Relativistic Extensions},
  author={Beno{\^i}t Famaey and Stacy S. McGaugh},
  journal={Living Reviews in Relativity},
A wealth of astronomical data indicate the presence of mass discrepancies in the Universe. The motions observed in a variety of classes of extragalactic systems exceed what can be explained by the mass visible in stars and gas. Either (i) there is a vast amount of unseen mass in some novel form — dark matter — or (ii) the data indicate a breakdown of our understanding of dynamics on the relevant scales, or (iii) both. Here, we first review a few outstanding challenges for the dark matter… 
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