AIM OF THE STUDY Adenovector encoding tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was shown to reduce experimental peritoneal adhesion. We investigated the targeting potential of our modified adenovector, its ability to reduce adhesions and the epigenetic role of histone methyltransferase EZH2 in adhesion formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Control lacZ, nonmodified tPA or modified tPA vectors were instilled in the peritoneal cavity after injury in de novo adhesions or after lysis of adhesions in recurrent adhesions. Adhesion severity was scored and adhesions and liver tissues were examined for adenovirus E4 gene and tPA mRNA expression. Levels of tPA, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and EZH2 expression were measured. RESULTS E4 transcripts were detected in adhesions of nonmodified and modified and in livers of nonmodified but not in livers of modified de novo adhesions. Both nonmodified (p = 0.021) and modified vectors (p = 0.036) reduced the severity of de novo adhesions compared to lacZ vector. Levels of tPA in nonmodified (p = 0.021) and modified adhesions (p = 0.001) were elevated while PAI-1 (p = 0.013 and p = 0.001, respectively) and TGF-β1 levels (p = 0.002 and p = 0.016, respectively) were reduced compared with lacZ group. All vectors were not expressed in recurrent adhesions and severity score were not different among groups. EZH2 levels were elevated in de novo nontreated (p = 0.001) and was further increased in recurrent (p = 0.001) nontreated adhesions compared with noninjured peritoneum. CONCLUSION Modified adenovirus successfully targeted de novo adhesions but not liver tissues and reduced the severity of de novo adhesions. EZH2 is involved in the development and progression of peritoneal adhesions.