Modulation by cationic amphiphilic drugs of serine base-exchange, phosholipase d and intracellular calcium homeostasis in glioma C6 cells.
The effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ), desmethylimipramine (DMI) and propranolol (PRO) on phospholipid metabolism in C6 glioma cells were studied by following the incorporation of 32Pi, [U-14C]glycerol, [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]oleate into lipids. The drugs produced a dose-dependent increase in the incorporation of 32Pi and [U-14C]glycerol, but not of [1-14C] oleate, into total phospholipids, that reached a plateau at 200 microM CPZ and 500 microM DMI and PRO. The three drugs shifted the incorporation of precursors from neutral [phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)] to acidic phospholipids [phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)] in a dose-dependent, qualitatively similar manner. The incorporation of [2-3H]glycerol into diacylglycerol was also depressed markedly by CPZ. Addition of 1 mM 1,2-dioleoylglycerol, 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol or oleate only partially reversed the decrease in PC labeling caused by CPZ. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate counteracted this effect of CPZ completely but greatly increased PC labeling even in the absence of the drug. Polyphosphoinositides rapidly incorporated 32Pi at early times reaching a plateau in about 40 min. The labeling rate of PI was not parallel to that of PIP or PIP2 and continued to increase even after the polyphosphoinositides had reached a plateau. CPZ increased PI labeling much more than that of PIP and PIP2. These data suggest that cationic amphiphilic drugs may act by inhibiting CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, thus decreasing incorporation of precursors into PC and PE; inhibiting PA phosphohydrolase with increased formation of phosphatidyl-CMP, the intermediate for the synthesis of acidic phospholipids; and stimulating the inositol exchange reaction, forming a pool of PI that is not available for PIP and PIP2 synthesis.