Modification of the NEMA XR21-2000 cardiac phantom for testing of imaging systems used in endovascular image guided interventions.


X-ray equipment testing using phantoms that mimic the specific human anatomy, morphology, and structure is a very important step in the research, development, and routine quality assurance for such equipment. Although the NEMA XR21 phantom exists for cardiac applications, there is no such standard phantom for neuro-, peripheral and cardio-vascular angiographic applications. We have extended the application of the NEMA XR21-2000 phantom to evaluate neurovascular x-ray imaging systems by structuring it to be head-equivalent; two aluminum plates shaped to fit into the NEMA phantom geometry were added to a 15 cm thick section. Also, to enable digital subtraction angiography (DSA) testing, two replaceable central plates with a hollow slot were made so that various angiographic sections could be inserted into the phantom. We tested the new modified phantom using a flat panel C-arm unit dedicated for endovascular image-guided interventions. All NEMA XR21-2000 standard test sections were used in evaluations with the new "head-equivalent" phantom. DSA and DA are able to be tested using two standard removable blocks having simulated arteries of various thickness and iodine concentrations (AAPM Report 15). The new phantom modifications have the benefits of enabling use of the standard NEMA phantom for angiography in both neuro- and cardio-vascular applications, with the convenience of needing only one versatile phantom for multiple applications. Additional benefits compared to using multiple phantoms are increased portability and lower cost.

Cite this paper

@article{Ionita2009ModificationOT, title={Modification of the NEMA XR21-2000 cardiac phantom for testing of imaging systems used in endovascular image guided interventions.}, author={C N Ionita and Andreea Dohatcu and Ashok Jain and Christos Keleshis and K R Hoffmann and Daniel R. Bednarek and Stephen Rudin}, journal={Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering}, year={2009}, volume={7258}, pages={72584R} }