The effect of D-methionine on cochlear oxidative state with and without cisplatin administration: mechanisms of otoprotection.
Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), a heavy metal-chelating agent, has been shown to decrease cisplatin (CP) toxicity in preclinical studies. This phase I dose-escalation study was undertaken to investigate DDTC as a chemoprotector in patients with advanced cancer. Thirty-five courses of CP in doses ranging from 120 to 160 mg/m2 were given intravenous (IV) bolus to 19 patients. DDTC at 4 g/m2 was infused over 1 hour, starting 45 minutes after CP. There was minimal nephrotoxicity with a mean creatine clearance of 99 mL/min +/- 4 pretreatment and 86 mL/min +/- 4 on day 21. Two courses were associated with a WBC count less than 2,000/mm3 and one course with a platelet count of 15,000/mm3. Two patients had grade 2 neurotoxicity. Hearing loss occurred in 11 patients: five greater than or equal to 20 dB, five greater than or equal to 40 dB, and one greater than or equal to 60 dB. All patients who received cranial irradiation had ototoxicity compared with 43% of those without radiation (P less than .05). All patients experienced toxicity during the DDTC infusion, including hypertension, flushing, diaphoresis, agitation, and local burning. We conclude that DDTC can protect against CP nephrotoxicity at doses up to 160 mg/m2. Ototoxicity became the dose-limiting factor.