Modes of oscillation in radiofrequency Paul traps

  title={Modes of oscillation in radiofrequency Paul traps},
  author={Haggai Landa and Michael Drewsen and Benni Reznik and Alex Retzker},
  journal={New Journal of Physics},
We examine the time-dependent dynamics of ion crystals in radiofrequency traps. The problem of stable trapping of general three-dimensional crystals is considered and the validity of the pseudopotential approximation is discussed. We analytically derive the micromotion amplitude of the ions, rigorously proving well-known experimental observations. We use a recently proposed method to find the modes that diagonalize the linearized time-dependent dynamical problem. This allows one to obtain… 

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