Modes of action of nitrification inhibitors

  title={Modes of action of nitrification inhibitors},
  author={Gregory W. McCarty},
  journal={Biology and Fertility of Soils},
  • G. McCarty
  • Published 7 April 1999
  • Chemistry, Biology
  • Biology and Fertility of Soils
Abstract In recent years, substantial progress has been made towards understanding the modes of action for the specific inhibition of autotrophic NH3 oxidation. This has included demonstrating that NH3 monooxygenase (AMO) has a broad substrate range for catalytic oxidation, and the inhibitory effects of many compounds are due to competition for the active site. Other compounds, such as acetylenes, are oxidized by the normal catalytic cycle of AMO to highly reactive products which covalently… 
Differential inhibition of nitrification by three metabolic inhibitors
In comparison to DNP, CCCP and KCN introduce no artefacts into the experimental cultures and are thus better suited for studies involving inhibition of biological nitrification than DNP.
Comparison of the Effects of Phenylhydrazine Hydrochloride and Dicyandiamide on Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Andosols
Results indicated that organohydrazine-based NIs have potential for the development of next-generation NIs targeting hydroxylamine dehydrogenase in the future.
Hydrocarbon monooxygenase in Mycobacterium: recombinant expression of a member of the ammonia monooxygenase superfamily
The hydrocarbon monooxygenase provides a new model for studying this important enzyme family, and the recombinant expression system will enable biochemical and molecular biological experiments (for example, site-directed mutagenesis) that were previously not possible.
The effect of nitrification inhibitors on the nitrous oxide (N2O) release from agricultural soils—a review
The use of nitrification inhibitors (NI) is a technique which is able to improve N fertilizer use efficiency, to reduce nitrate leaching and to decrease the emission of the climate‐relevant gas N₂O
Biotransformation of aromatic compounds from wastewaters containing N and/or S, by nitrification/denitrification: a review
This review presents progress made over the last decades in the understanding of the metabolic capabilities of nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms for the biotransformation of nitrogen,
Nitrification Inhibition Using Benzotriazoles
ABSTRACT The common corrosion inhibitor, 1H-benzotriazole (Bz), found as a component of glycol-based aircraft deicers, and its derivatives such as 5-chloro-1H-benzotriazole (CBz),
ABSTRACT The common corrosion inhibitor, 1H-benzotriazole (Bz), found as a component of glycol-based aircraft deicers, and its derivatives such as 5-chloro-1H-benzotriazole (CBz),


Inhibition of ammonia monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea by carbon disulfide
Results suggest that ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) is the site of action of CS2, and it is proposed that CS2 may act on AMO by reversibly reacting with a suitable nucleophilic amino acid in close proximity to the active site copper.
Kinetic Studies of Ammonia Monooxygenase Inhibition in Nitrosomonas europaea by Hydrocarbons and Halogenated Hydrocarbons in an Optimized Whole-Cell Assay
  • W. Keener, D. Arp
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Applied and environmental microbiology
  • 1993
An active-site model for AMO is supported consisting of an NH(3)-binding site and a second site that binds noncompetitive inhibitors, with oxidation occurring at either site.
Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Ammonia Monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea by Allylsulfide
Allylsulfide is a specific, mechanism-based inactivator of AMO in N. europaea and prevents the C label from C(2)H( 2) from being incorporated into the 27-kDa polypeptide of AMo.
Suicidal inactivation and labelling of ammonia mono-oxygenase by acetylene.
It is concluded that acetylene is a suicide substrate for the mono-oxygenase, and the labelling experiment provides the first identification of a constituent polypeptide of ammonia mono-oxidizing enzyme in Nitrosomonas europaea.
Factors Limiting Aliphatic Chlorocarbon Degradation by Nitrosomonas europaea: Cometabolic Inactivation of Ammonia Monooxygenase and Substrate Specificity
The soil nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea is capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated hydrocarbons and a series of chlorinated methanes, ethanes, and other ethylenes were screened as substrates for ammonia monooxygenase and for their ability to inactivate the ammonia-oxidizing system of N.Europaea.
Oxidation of Nitrapyrin to 6-Chloropicolinic Acid by the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea
It was shown that one of the oxygens in 6-chloropicolinic acid came from diatomic oxygen and that the other came from water.
Spectroscopic evidence for a photosensitive oxygenated state of ammonia mono-oxygenase.
Photoinactivation of ammonia oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea cells by near-u.v. light was confirmed and further shown to occur with the same rate constant as loss of bromoethane-oxidation
Reductive dehalogenation of the trichloromethyl group of nitrapyrin by the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea
Two specific inhibitors of ammonia oxidation, acetylene and allylthiourea, inhibited the rate of the dehalogenation reaction by 80 and 84%, respectively, and 2-chloro-6-dichloromethylpyridine is apparently not an intermediate in the aerobic production of 6-chloropicolinic acid from nitrapyrin.
Photoinactivation of Ammonia Oxidation in Nitrosomonas
Photoinactivation of ammonia oxidation in cells of Nitrosomonas was shown to follow first-order kinetics with a rate constant proportional to incident light intensity, and the amount per cell of the following constituents was not measurably altered by photoinactivation.