Modernization and Reform From Above: The Case of Iran

  title={Modernization and Reform From Above: The Case of Iran},
  author={James A. Bill},
  journal={The Journal of Politics},
  pages={19 - 40}
  • J. Bill
  • Published 1 February 1970
  • Economics
  • The Journal of Politics
Social scientists have recently become deeply involved in the study of modernization, and theoreticians from a wide variety of disciplines are now seeking to formulate meaningful theoretical statements about this issue. Several points have already become clear. First, it is more fruitful to examine the challenge of modernization in terms of social forces such as groups, classes, and elites than to concentrate on formal-legal structures and institutions. Second, the varying intensities and… 
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