Modern pacemaker and implantable cardioverter/defibrillator systems can be magnetic resonance imaging safe: in vitro and in vivo assessment of safety and function at 1.5 T.

@article{Roguin2004ModernPA,
  title={Modern pacemaker and implantable cardioverter/defibrillator systems can be magnetic resonance imaging safe: in vitro and in vivo assessment of safety and function at 1.5 T.},
  author={Ariel Roguin and Menekhem M. Zviman and Glenn R. Meininger and Eliane R. Rodrigues and Timm M. Dickfeld and David A. Bluemke and Albert C. Lardo and Ronald D. Berger and Hugh Calkins and Henry R. Halperin},
  journal={Circulation},
  year={2004},
  volume={110 5},
  pages={475-82}
}
BACKGROUND MRI has unparalleled soft-tissue imaging capabilities. The presence of devices such as pacemakers and implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs), however, is historically considered a contraindication to MRI. These devices are now smaller, with less magnetic material and improved electromagnetic interference protection. Our aim was to determine whether these modern systems can be used in an MR environment. METHODS AND RESULTS We tested in vitro and in vivo lead heating, device… CONTINUE READING

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