Modern human genomes reveal our inner Neanderthal

  title={Modern human genomes reveal our inner Neanderthal},
  author={Ewen Callaway},
Cross-breeding boosted Homo sapiens' ability to cope with cool climates, but the hybrids may have had trouble breeding. 
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Introduction: Interrogating the Anthropocene

One hopes that this is another ‘untimely’ book that adds to the many voices of artists, poets, academics, politicians, and leaders around the world who have embraced the necessity of addressing the



The Shaping of Modern Human Immune Systems by Multiregional Admixture with Archaic Humans

Analysis of highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, vital immune system components subject to strong balancing selection, shows how modern humans acquired the HLA-B*73 allele in west Asia through admixture with archaic humans called Denisovans, a likely sister group to the Neandertals.

The complete genome sequence of a Neandertal from the Altai Mountains

It is shown that interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene and a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans is established.

A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome

The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.

Neanderthal introgression at chromosome 3p21.31 was under positive natural selection in East Asians.

Evidence of Neanderthal introgression within the chromosome 3p21.31 region is presented, and suggestive evidence supports latitude-dependent selection and suggests that this allele was lost during the exodus of ancestors of modern Eurasians from Africa and reintroduced to Eurasian from Neanderthals.

The landscape of Neandertal ancestry in present-day humans

The results suggest that part of the explanation for genomic regions of reduced Neanderthal ancestry is Neanderthal alleles that caused decreased fertility in males when moved to a modern human genetic background.

Resurrecting Surviving Neandertal Lineages from Modern Human Genomes

Analyses of surviving archaic lineages suggest that there were fitness costs to hybridization, admixture occurred both before and after divergence of non-African modern humans, and Neandertals were a source of adaptive variation for loci involved in skin phenotypes.