Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory.

  title={Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory.},
  author={Milford H. Wolpoff and John Hawks and David W. Frayer and Keith Hunley},
  volume={291 5502},
The replacement theory of modern human origins stipulates that populations outside of Africa were replaced by a new African species of modern humans. Here we test the replacement theory in two peripheral areas far from Africa by examining the ancestry of early modern Australians and Central Europeans. Analysis of pairwise differences was used to determine if dual ancestry in local archaic populations and earlier modern populations from the Levant and/or Africa could be rejected. The data imply… 

A structured ancestral population for the evolution of modern humans.

Archaic human ancestry in East Asia

The results suggest admixture between Denisovans or a Denisova-related population and the ancestors of East Asians, and that the history of anatomically modern and archaic humans might be more complex than previously proposed.

Archaic human genomics.

  • T. Disotell
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2012
The complete draft genomes of Neanderthals and of heretofore unknown hominins from Siberia demonstrated gene flow between these archaic human species and modern Eurasians but not sub-Saharan Africans, suggesting this unexpected finding does not fit well with either the RAO model or MRE model.

The Origin of Modern East Asians

The evidence for anatomical, behavioral and genetic modernity in East Asia is examined to show that these three aspects of modernity are linked through demographic changes that began in the late Pleistocene - increased survivorship and population expansions that changed the course of human evolution.

Modern human origins and prehistoric demography of Europe in light of the present-day genetic diversity.

The questions of the Neanderthal admixture as well as of the relative contribution of different waves of prehistoric migrations to the gene pool of modern Europeans are discussed.

Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins

It is argued that future attempts to investigate ancient hybridization between humans and other hominins should explicitly account for population structure, and recommend caution in inferring admixture from geographic patterns of shared polymorphisms.

Anthropological Genetics: Inferring the History of Our Species Through the Analysis of DNA

It is concluded that modern humans evolved recently in Africa and then left to colonize the rest of the world within the last 50,000 years, largely replacing the other human groups that they encountered.

The Hybrid Origin of “Modern” Humans

This argument is extended to a reappraisal of the archaeological record, proposing that the exchange of cultural information between divergent groups may have facilitated the emergence of cultural innovation.

Human Populations: Evolution

Human populations began a separate evolutionary genetic trajectory about 6 million years ago, but the common ancestors of all modern human populations share a more recent past, and generally trace



An Australasian test of the recent African origin theory using the WLH-50 calvarium.

The results of these procedures provide an unambiguous refutation of a model of complete replacement within this region, and indicate that the Ngandong hominids or a population like them may have contributed significantly to the ancestry of WLH-50.

Upper Pleistocene Hominid Evolution in South-Central Europe: A Review of the Evidence and Analysis of Trends [and Comments and Reply]

South-Central Europe has yielded rather large and significant samples of archaic and early modern Homo sapiens dated to the Upper Pleistocene. These hominid samples have received proportionately


  • A. Rogers
  • Biology, Economics
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1995
It is inferred that a major expansion of the human population occurred during the late Pleistocene, because a simple model of population history that assumes that a population grows (or shrinks) suddenly from female size N0 toFemale size N1 is studied.

The Last Neanderthal : The Rise, Success, and Mysterious Extinction of Our Closest Human Relatives

The Last Neanderthal, written by one of the most respected authorities he subject and supported by a dazzling wealth of material, paints the first full portrait of themost familiar and haunting of human relatives.

Latest Homo erectus of Java: Potential Contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia

Electron spin resonance (ESR) and mass spectrometric U-series dating of fossil bovid teeth collected from the hominid-bearing levels at these sites gave mean ages of 27 ± 2 to 53.3 ± 4 thousand years ago; the range in ages reflects uncertainties in uranium migration histories.

A study of contemporary levels and temporal trends in inbreeding in the Tangier Island, Virginia, population using pedigree data and isonymy.

Inbreeding in the Tangier Island population is consistent with the isolated nature of its population, and temporal trends reflect patterns in emigration and a breakdown in isolation over time.

The depositional context of the early upper paleolithic human fossils from the Koneprusy (Zlatý kůn) and Mladec caves, Czech republic.

The caves of Mladec I and II (Moravia) and Koneprusy (Bohemia) are principal hominid Early Upper Paleolithic sites in Central Europe that require a complex reconsideration from several viewpoints, which makes it unlikely that the human paleontological accumulations were the result of human activity within the cave chambers.

The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia.

A morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and early modern humans dispersing into southern Iberia and establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of modern humans and refutes strict replacement models of modern human origins.

Investigation into the relationship between perikymata counts and crown formation times

This study reports on a sample of 12 modern human incisors (from two archaeological sites) that were viewed with a scanning electron microscope and whose perikymata were counted, substantially expanding the previous data base for counts of perikylata in Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.