Modern electronic and chemical thermometers used in the axilla are inaccurate

  title={Modern electronic and chemical thermometers used in the axilla are inaccurate},
  author={Stanley Tamuka Zengeya and Ivan Blumenthal},
  journal={European Journal of Pediatrics},
AbstractRectal and axillary temperatures were measured simultaneously in 83 children using three different thermometer devices providing 166 pairs of results. In the first series consisting of 22 febrile children (44 measurements) and 20 afebrile children (40 measurements), the rectal mercury measurement was compared to an axillary mercury and axillary Tempa-DOT thermometer. The axillary mercury had sensitivity of 14/22 (64%) and specificity of 20/20 (100%) while the Tempa-DOT had sensitivity… 
Is the axilla the right site for temperature measurement in children by chemical thermometer?
The results showed that limits of agreement were wide between readings of axillary mercury-in-glass thermometers and chemical thermometers, and it is suggested that the axilla is not a suitable anatomic site for screening of fever with Tempa.DOT.
Accuracy of tympanic and infrared skin thermometers in children
This study demonstrated that the tympanic, Beurer and Thermofocus thermometers cannot reliably predict rectal temperature and therefore the authors do not advise replacement of rectal measurement as the gold standard for detecting fever in children by one of these devices.
Measuring the body temperature: how accurate is the Tempa Dot?
The Tempa Dot is a reliable alternative for the mercury thermometer and in clinical use, a cut-off point of 37.5 degrees C for both the oral and axillary site is most appropriate.
Temperature measurement in children with cancer: an evaluation.
Ear-based temperature measurements in febrile children were more accurate than axillary and forehead temperature measurements, and the current practice of axillary temperature measurement needs to be re-considered.
Accuracy of Peripheral Thermometers for Estimating Temperature
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether peripheral thermometers have clinically acceptable accuracy compared with central thermometers in adults and children and whether the type of peripheral thermometer is an important determinant of accuracy.
Comparison of temporal artery and axillary temperatures in healthy newborns.
The study findings supported a new nursing practice standard for measuring infant temperatures in the authors' mother/baby unit, and using temporal artery thermometers is now their unit's standard of care for healthy newborns.
La mesure de la température en pratique pédiatrique quotidienne Température measurement in daily practice
The use of rectal mercury thermometer has long been the standard method for measurement of body temperature. The restriction of mercury use since 1996 has led to development of other devices. The
Body temperature measurement in paediatrics: Which gadget should we believe?
There is often reluctance on the part of parents andolder children to measure rectal temperature, andnosocomial infections have been attributed to the use of rectal thermometers in hospital, so the safety of doingrectal temperatures in neutropenic patients has not been established.
Comparison of temporal artery thermometer to standard temperature measurements in pediatric intensive care unit patients
Temporal artery and axillary temperature measurements showed variability to rectal temperatures but had marked variability in febrile children, and neither was sufficiently accurate to recommend replacing rectal or other invasive methods.
Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn (1751–1804): precision in thermometry
  • J. Pearn
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of medical biography
  • 2012
Sir George Shuckburgh Evelyn made possible the accuracy of thermometry on which patient care depends by demonstrating that the upper fixed point of reference, that of boiling water, could change by up to 10°C.


The inaccuracy of axillary temperatures measured with an electronic thermometer.
  • J. M. Ogren
  • Medicine
    American journal of diseases of children
  • 1990
It was concluded that axillary temperatures are not sensitive enough to determine a fever when measured with an electronic thermometer, and should be abandoned in the outpatient setting.
Bacteriologie Studies on Electronic Hospital Thermometers
Electronic thermometers used in many hospitals require insertion into the mouth of a temperature-sensing probe covered by a pre-packaged probe cover, indicating a potential infection hazard for high-risk patient groups and a need by hospital personnel to consider this as a possible source of contamination.
The Significance of Depth of Insertion of the Thermometer for Recording Rectal Temperatures
The most suitable depth of measurement for the determination of rectal temperature, and the limits within which it may be allowed to vary, have been determined by thermo‐electric methods, the
Chemical and glass thermometers for axillary temperatures: how do they compare?
Axillary temperatures recorded with a disposable chemical thermometer (DCT) measured a mean 0.29 degrees C higher than a mercury in glass thermometer (MGT) but differences could be wide. Differences
Axillary and rectal temperature measurements in infants.
SIR,-I was surprised to find in this very comprehensive and helpful consensus statement on asthma,' no mention about the short course of oral steroids that has in recent years become widely, yet so
Thermometers and rectal perforations in the neonate.
It is suggested that since the axillary temperature in the neonate is an adequate reflection of the core temperature the routine use of the rectal thermometer, except in exceptional circumstances, should cease.
Should we ban the mercury thermometer? Discussion paper.
History The first mercury in glass thermometer was invented in 1659 by a French astronomer and priest, Ismael Boulliau. It was two centuries later in 1866 that Sir Thomas Allbut made the short
Fever: the old and the new.
  • E. Atkins
  • Medicine
    The Journal of infectious diseases
  • 1984
Experimental studies on the pathogenesis of fever during the last 30 years suggest that fever and certain aspects of both immunoregulation and inflammation are produced by a single hormone, the monokine interleukin-1, which has presumably been selected by evolution to protect the host against infection.