Models of the self: self-construals and gender.

  title={Models of the self: self-construals and gender.},
  author={Susan E. Cross and Laura Madson},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  volume={122 1},
The authors first describe individual differences in the structure of the self. In the independent self-construal, representations of others are separate from the self. In the interdependent self-construal, others are considered part of the self (H. Markus & S. Kitayama, 1991). In general, men in the United States are thought to construct and maintain an independent self-construal, whereas women are thought to construct and maintain an interdependent self-construal. The authors review the… Expand

Topics from this paper

It takes two to mimic: behavioral consequences of self-construals.
The present studies demonstrated the moderation of self-construal orientation on mimicry, and found that independent self- construals produced less nonconscious mimicry than interdependent self-Construals. Expand
The relational-interdependent self-construal, self-concept consistency, and well-being.
Findings reveal the importance of a cultural analysis of theories of the self, personality, and well-being for further theory development and show that there is a weaker relation between consistency and wellness for individuals with a highly relational self-construal than for those with a low relationalSelf- construal. Expand
A developmental perspective of self-construals and sex differences: comment on Cross and Madson (1997)
The developmental perspective provides insights into ways that Cross and Madson's approach can be elaborated to explain sex differences in social behavior, suggesting that development of the self does not precede children's gender-related behavior. Expand
“Who Am I?” The Cultural Psychology of the Conceptual Self
This study investigated whether self-concepts that arise from participation in interdependent cultural contexts, in this case the self-concepts of Japanese students, will be relatively more sensitiveExpand
Toward a Better Understanding of Self-Construal Theory: An Agency View of the Processes of Self-Construal
This article offers a novel perspective on self-construal theory. Self-construal concerns how individuals understand who they are in relation to the broad set of cultural influences in which theyExpand
Self-Perception and Self-Construal of Women in Relation to Employment and Domestic Statuses
The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the changes in the self-perception and the self-construal of women due to employment and domestic statuses and developmental stages, and (b) theExpand
Examining the Effects of Power as a Function of Self-Construals and Gender
Building on prior work showing that the effects of power depend on the goals that people associate with power (Chen, Lee-Chai, & Bargh, 2001), the present research examined the goals powerholdersExpand
Thinking about oneself and others: the relational-interdependent self-construal and social cognition.
The relational-interdependent self-construal was associated with positive implicit evaluations of relational concepts and with tightly organized cognitive networks of relational terms and with memory for and implicit organization of relational information. Expand
Ideal selves and self‐esteem in people with independent or interdependent self‐construal
Not living up to one's ideal self has been shown to coincide with decreased self-esteem. In the present paper, this notion is applied to the differentiation between people with independent versusExpand
Gender, Interdependent Self-construals, and Collective Self-esteem: Women and Men Are Mostly the Same
Women and men may differ in how they define themselves in reference to their social world. Baumeister and Sommer (1997) suggest that women prefer close relationships whereas men prefer large-groupExpand


The domestication of self: gender comparisons of self-imagery and self-esteem
Gender comparisons of self-conceptions were made of a systematic random sample of 797 adult Canadians. The Twenty Statements Test and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were the measures used. Given theExpand
Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.
People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the veryExpand
Gender and Thought: The Role of the Self-Concept
In the continuing analysis of sex and gender differences, there is a growing awareness of the possibility of fundamental differences in how women and men perceive themselves and their worlds, in howExpand
The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals
Following concepts introduced by Markus and Kitayama, this study describes the theoretical and empirical development of a scale to measure the strength of an individual's interdependent andExpand
Self-Discrepancy : A Theory Relating Self and Affect
  • E.
This article presents a theory of how different types of discrepancies between self-state representations are related to different kinds of emotional vulnerabilities. One domain of the self (actual;Expand
Self-Construals, Coping, and Stress in Cross-Cultural Adaptation
This study examines differences in the independent and interdependent self-construals of American and East Asian students studying in the United States and the influence of these self-construals onExpand
Mental Representations of the Self
Publisher Summary The study of the self is now of concern to almost every part of social psychology. This chapter attempts to adopt two complementary theoretical perspectives in cognitive psychologyExpand
Gender and individualistic vs. collectivist bases for notions about the self
This article provides a critique of traditional psychological theories of the self that emphasize autonomy, separation, and independence, and ignore the inherently social character of the selfExpand
From self-conceptions to self-worth: on the sources and structure of global self-esteem.
  • B. Pelham, W. Swann
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1989
Three factors were identified that uniquely contribute to people's global self-esteem: (a) people's tendencies to experience positive and negative affective states, (b) people's specific self-viewsExpand
Gender Differences and Similarities in Self-Concept Within Everyday Life Contexts
A stereotypic pattern of gender differences has been found in previous self-concept research. Men have tended to rate themselves higher on self-concept measures of giftedness, power, andExpand