Modelling of the McKibben artificial muscle: A review

  title={Modelling of the McKibben artificial muscle: A review},
  author={Bertrand Tondu},
  journal={Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures},
  pages={225 - 253}
  • B. Tondu
  • Published 1 February 2012
  • Engineering
  • Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures
The so-called McKibben artificial muscle is one of the most efficient and currently one of the most widely used fluidic artificial muscles, due to the simplicity of its design, combining ease of implementation and analogous behaviour with skeletal muscles. Its working principle is very simple: The circumferential stress of a pressurized inner tube is transformed into an axial contraction force by means of a double-helix braided sheath whose geometry corresponds to a network of identical… 
Numerical modelling and experimental validation of a McKibben pneumatic muscle actuator
The McKibben muscle belongs to the type of muscles known as braided muscles. It is made of an inner hyper-elastic tube, surrounded by a braided shell made of inextensible threads; both ends provide
Use of Textile Friction to Mimic Hill's Model in Dynamic Contraction of Braided Artificial Muscles
The use of a textile braided sheath, particularly in the case of the so-called McKibben structure, is discussed to obtain a Hill’s model-like dynamic behaviour of the artificial muscle.
Non-linear quasi-static model of pneumatic artificial muscle actuators
Pneumatic artificial muscles are a class of pneumatically driven actuators that are remarkable for their simplicity, lightweight, high stroke, and high force. The McKibben artificial muscle, which is
Reconsidering the McKibben muscle: Energetics, operating fluid, and bladder material
In spite of extensive modeling and characterization efforts, little is known about the energetics of McKibben muscle actuators. This article experimentally investigates the effectiveness of
A comprehensive test method for measuring actuation performance of McKibben artificial muscles
The versatile nature of artificial muscles and their applications is derived from their ability to actuate in tensile, torsional and bending modes that can mimic the action of hydraulic rams,
Characterization and modeling of geometric variations in McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles
This paper presents experimental data on the actuation properties of McKibben muscles constructed with varying bladder pre-strain and thickness. The tests determine quasi-static force-length
Straight-Fiber-Type Artificial Muscle Deformation Under Pressurization
The deformation of straight-fiber-type pneumatic artificial muscles in a cylindrical rubber tube reinforced by fibers in the axial direction was theoretically analyzed and the maximum stress was found to be related to the elastic modulus of the rubber but not to the inner pressure.
Bio-Inspired Design of Artificial Striated Muscles Composed of Sarcomere-Like Contraction Units (preprint)
An artificial pneumatic myofibril composed of multiple contraction units that combine stretchable and inextensible materials is designed to find a reasonable trade-off between these features by mimicking the striated structure of skeletal muscles.
Modeling and testing of a knitted-sleeve fluidic artificial muscle
The knitted-sleeve fluidic muscle is similar in design to a traditional McKibben muscle, with a separate bladder and sleeve. However, in place of a braided sleeve, it uses a tubular-knit sleeve made
Effects of Bladder Geometry in Pneumatic Artificial Muscles
Designing optimal pneumatic muscles for a particular application requires an accurate model of the hyperelastic bladder and how it influences contraction force. We present here modeling and


Modeling and control of McKibben artificial muscle robot actuators
The McKibben artificial muscle is a pneumatic device characterized by its high level of functional analogy with human skeletal muscle. While maintaining a globally cylindrical shape, the McKibben
The Concept and Design of Pleated Pneumatic Artificial Muscles
Abstract This paper describes the design of a new type of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM), namely the Pleated Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PPAM). It was developed as an improvement with regard to
Accounting for elastic energy storage in McKibben artificial muscle actuators
The McKibben artificial muscle is a pneumatic actuator whose properties include a very high force to weight ratio. This characteristic makes it very attractive for a wide range of applications such
Evaluation of the Dynamic Model of Fluidic Muscles using Quick-Release
An advanced model of the fluidic muscle is developed that will help to improve the behavior of the robot PANTER and is the first step in building a biomechanical inspired two-legged robot that is able to run and walk elastically.
Fatigue characteristics of McKibben artificial muscle actuators
  • G. Klute, B. Hannaford
  • Engineering
    Proceedings. 1998 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Innovations in Theory, Practice and Applications (Cat. No.98CH36190)
  • 1998
A model is developed that predicts the maximum number of life cycles of the actuator based on available uniaxial tensile properties ofthe actuator's inner bladder, revealing McKibben actuators fabricated with natural latex rubber bladders have a fatigue limit 24 times greater than actuator fabricated with synthetic silicone rubber at large contraction ratios.
McKibben artificial muscle can be in accordance with the Hill skeletal muscle model
  • B. Tondu, S. D. Zagal
  • Biology
    The First IEEE/RAS-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, 2006. BioRob 2006.
  • 2006
It is shown that the choice of an adequate textile sheath can lead to a velocity-tension curve in conformity with the Hill model equation, and it is proposed to relate this phenomenon to specific textile yarn hydrodynamic friction.
A New Approach to Modeling Hysteresis in a Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Using The Maxwell-Slip Model
Two main challenges in using a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) actuator are the nonlinearity of pneumatic system and the nonlinearity of the PAM dynamics. The latter is complicated to characterize.
Braid Effects on Contractile Range and Friction Modeling in Pneumatic Muscle Actuators
By halving the number of strands used to create the braided shell the actuator's contractile range can be increased by approximately 7%.
A Seven-degrees-of-freedom Robot-arm Driven by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Humanoid Robots
This paper presents the design of a 7R anthropomorphic robot-arm entirely actuated by antagonistic McKibben artificial muscle pairs and validation of the robot- arm architecture was performed in a teleoperation mode.
Artificial Muscles: Actuators for Biorobotic Systems
Experimental results of the constructed device indicate muscle-like performance in general: higher activation pressures yielded higher output forces, faster concentric contractions resulted in lower force outputs, faster eccentric contractions produced higher force Output, and output forces were higher at longer muscle lengths than shorter lengths.