Modeling of the Melting Layer. Part II: Electromagnetic

@article{Fabry1999ModelingOT,
  title={Modeling of the Melting Layer. Part II: Electromagnetic},
  author={F. Fabry and W. Szyrmer},
  journal={Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences},
  year={1999},
  volume={56},
  pages={3593-3600}
}
To complement the meteorological modeling of the melting layer, a model of the scattering properties at microwave frequencies for snow, melting snow, and rain is implemented. The scattering model, running in tandem with a meteorological model, generates the reflectivity fields associated with the hydrometeors in the model to facilitate comparisons with available observations. Several existing and a few new approaches for the scattering of melting snow are attempted. In addition, the models are… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Modeling of the Melting Layer. Part III: The Density Effect
A model of the melting snow and its radar reflectivity is presented here. The main addition to previous description of the melting layer is the explicit introduction of snow density as a variable.Expand
Including a melting layer in microwave radiative transfer simulation for clouds
Abstract A simple method is presented for the inclusion of melting layer microwave radiative properties into cloud model simulations. These can be used for sensitivity studies of passive and activeExpand
Modeling of the melting layer. Part I : Dynamics and microphysics
Abstract To obtain the full description of the dynamical and microphysical finescale structures required for the computation of the radar-derived brightband parameters, a numerical model has beenExpand
Radar attenuation due to melting: a comparison of physical models proposed for the melting morphology
The radio wave attenuation through the melting layer at various frequencies is investigated. The effect of the melting morphology on the attenuation computed by the Mie theory is discussed. To obtainExpand
A Melting-Layer Model for Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Applications. Part I: Model Formulation and Comparison with Observations
Abstract In this study, a 1D steady-state microphysical model that describes the vertical distribution of melting precipitation particles is developed. The model is driven by the ice-phaseExpand
Modeling melting layer radar observations at GPM frequencies; comparison to measurements
TLDR
The melting layer attenuation is studied by fitting the modeled reflectivity factor and the reflectivity-weighted fall velocity to measured values at both Ku- and Ka-bands and shows that for Ku-band the implemented model can describe the melting layer with sufficient accuracy, but for Ka-band there is discrepancy between the measured and modeled values despite the fitting process. Expand
Modeling radar backscattering from melting snowflakes using spheroids with nonuniform distribution of water
Abstract In a number of studies it is reported that at the early stages, melting of aggregate snowflakes is enhanced at lower parts. In this paper, the manifestation of the resulting nonuniformExpand
Modeling Radar Attenuation by a Low Melting Layer With Optimized Model Parameters at C-Band
TLDR
A melting layer model is used to derive the relations between the specific attenuation caused by propagation through a melting layer and the reflectivity factor associated with this layer and it is demonstrated that radar signal attenuation can be on the order of 7 dB or higher over a distance of 40 km. Expand
Melting layer model evaluation using fall velocity spectra at Ku-band
A melting layer model used for the rainfall retrievals from spaceborne weather radars is examined using Doppler radar measurements at 13.8 GHz, taken in the zenith-pointing mode. From theExpand
A bulk parametrization of melting snowflakes with explicit liquid water fraction for the COSMO model
Abstract. A new snow melting parametrization is presented for the non-hydrostatic limited-area COSMO ("consortium for small-scale modelling") model. In contrast to the standard cloud microphysics ofExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 18 REFERENCES
Radar Observations and Simulation of the Melting Layer of Precipitation
Abstract The melting layer in precipitation is physically modeled and compared with high resolution Doppler radar data. The model includes a new formulation of the dielectric properties and canExpand
Modeling of the melting layer. Part I : Dynamics and microphysics
Abstract To obtain the full description of the dynamical and microphysical finescale structures required for the computation of the radar-derived brightband parameters, a numerical model has beenExpand
A melting-layer model and its use in correcting for the bright band in single-polarization radar echoes
A new dynamic microphysical model of the melting layer is presented, developed from a previous model. This new model is applied to obtain vertical reflectivity profiles (VRPs) and verticalExpand
Structure of the Melting Layer in Mesoscale Convective System Stratiform Precipitation
Abstract This study examines the aircraft observations and theoretical evolution of particles above, through, and below the melting layer in the stratiform region associated with a mesoscaleExpand
Long-Term Radar Observations of the Melting Layer of Precipitation and Their Interpretation
Abstract In this study, 600 h of vertically pointing X-band radar data and 50 h of UHF boundary layer wind profiler data were processed and analyzed to characterize quantitatively the structure andExpand
Mass-Dimensional Relationships for Ice Particles and the Influence of Riming on Snowfall Rates
Abstract The masses, dimensions, and habits of over 2800 natural ice particles precipitating from orographic winter storms in the central Sierra Nevada were obtained using photomicrographs. IceExpand
A Survey of Melting Layer Research.
Abstract : This report summarizes previous melting-layer research both within and outside AFGL and provides recommendations for future research in the melting layer. An extensive literature searchExpand
Radar Backscattering of Microwaves by Spongy Ice Spheres.
Abstract The radar backscattering cross section of a spongy ice hailstone—a mixture of ice and liquid water—depends on its size, shape and dielectric function. There are two types of theories of theExpand
Horizontal aircraft passes across 0°C regions within winter storms
Abstract Seventeen horizontal aircraft passes were made across 0°C regions within 10 winter storms over Atlantic Canada. Regions of near freezing temperatures (±1°C) ranged from <2 km to 145 km inExpand
Fall speeds and masses of solid precipitation particles
Measurements have been made of the fall speeds and masses of a large number of different types of solid precipitation particles. Particular attention is paid to the effects of riming and aggregationExpand
...
1
2
...