Semi-volatile organic compounds in the air and dust of 30 French schools: a pilot study.
Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological and behavioral differences. In this study, we provide an exposure modeling framework to simulate exposures for children in this environment and assess dominant exposure routes and sources of exposure variability, in order to characterize factors that influence risk. We use a dataset of pesticide measurements collected in 42 low-income dwellings, including vacuum dust and floor wipe samples from kitchens and living rooms. We fit distributions to the concentration measurements for the organophosphates measured, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and the most prevalent pyrethroids (permethrin, cypermethrin, and cyfluthrin), and simulated 1000 homes from the distributions. Concentration measurements were then connected with activity pattern data, short-term dermal and ingestion exposures and absorbed doses were simulated for children ages 1-5 years. For both pesticide groups, exposure values ranged widely, with concentration values contributing most significantly to exposure variability, although approximately 20-fold variability was attributable to exposure factors alone. In addition, upper percentile exposed children usually had both higher concentrations as well as greater influences from exposure and dose factors. Differences were also seen across pesticide groups in dominant exposure pathways. Our analyses indicate a profile of factors that describe individuals likely to receive high doses of one or multiple pesticides and could allow for more targeted intervention strategies. More generally, this work provides a standard framework to evaluate and describe exposures to prevalent residential pesticides via multiple pathways.