Modeling emission of acoustic energy during bubble expansion in PICO bubble chambers

  title={Modeling emission of acoustic energy during bubble expansion in PICO bubble chambers},
  author={Tetiana Kozynets and Scott Fallows and Carsten B. Krauss},
  journal={Physical Review D},
The PICO experiment uses bubble chambers filled with superheated C$_3$F$_8$ for spin-dependent WIMP dark matter searches. One of the main sources of background in these detectors is alpha particles from decays of environmental $^{222}\mathrm{Rn}$, which nucleate bubbles that are visually indistinguishable from WIMP candidate events. Alpha-induced bubbles can be discriminated acoustically, because the signal from alpha events is consistently larger in magnitude than that from nuclear recoil/WIMP… 

A buffer-free concept bubble chamber for PICO dark matter searches

In this paper, we report on the successful operation at Drexel University of the PICO collaboration's first C3F8 buffer-free prototype fluorocarbon bubble chamber. Previous PICO bubble chambers have

Bubble growth rate in superheated droplets

  • T. Morlat
  • Physics
    Thermal Science and Engineering Progress
  • 2022

Data-driven modeling of electron recoil nucleation in PICO C3F8 bubble chambers

The PICO Collaboration wishes to thank SNOLAB and its staff for support through underground space, logistical and technical services. SNOLAB operations are supported by the Canada Foundation for

Characteristics of Bubble Chambers

The bubble chamber is a new radiation detector in which ionizing events produce tracks consisting of strings of tiny bubbles in a superheated liquid. By means of fast flash photography, practically

Molecular dynamics simulations of bubble nucleation in dark matter detectors.

Direct molecular dynamics simulations of heat-spike-induced bubble formation allow us to test the nanoscale process described in the classical heat spike model and show that a large number of individual bubbles can form along an α track, which explains the observed larger acoustic amplitudes.

On the Theory of the Bubble Chamber

An attempt is made to analyze the factors which determine the operation of the bubble chamber. It is concluded that the majority of bubbles in conventional chambers are nucleated by moderately

Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 C_{3}F_{8} Bubble Chamber.

These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4×10^{-41}  cm^{2} for a 30-GeV c^{-2} WIMP, more than 1 order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

Discrimination of nuclear recoils from alpha particles with superheated liquids

The PICASSO collaboration observed for the first time a significant difference between the acoustic signals induced by neutrons and alpha particles in a detector based on superheated liquids. This

Dark matter search results from the complete exposure of the PICO-60 C3F8 bubble chamber

Final results are reported from operation of the PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C$_3$F$_8$ located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. The chamber

Direct simulations of homogeneous bubble nucleation: Agreement with classical nucleation theory and no local hot spots.

Results from direct, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous bubble (liquid-to-vapor) nucleation are presented, finding bubble nucleation rates which are lower than in most of the previous, smaller simulations.

Final analysis and results of the Phase II SIMPLE dark matter search.

The final results of the Phase II SIMPLE measurements are reported, comprising two run stages of 15 superheated droplet detectors each, with the second stage including an improved neutron shielding and revised nucleation efficiency based on a reanalysis of previously reported monochromatic neutron irradiations.


The growth of a vapor bubble in a superheated liquid is controlled by three factors: the inertia of the liquid, the surface tension, and the vapor pressure. As the bubble grows, evaporation takes