Modeling electromagnetic propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide

  title={Modeling electromagnetic propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide},
  author={Steven A. Cummer},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
  • S. Cummer
  • Published 1 September 2000
  • Physics
  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
The ionosphere plays a role in radio propagation that varies strongly with frequency. At extremely low frequency (ELF: 3-3000 Hz) and very low frequency (VLF: 3-30 kHz), the ground and the ionosphere are good electrical conductors and form a spherical Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Many giants of the electromagnetics (EMs) community studied ELF-VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, a topic which was critically important for long-range communication and navigation systems. James R… 

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