Modeling current and future potential wintering distributions of eastern North American monarch butterflies.

Abstract

Monarch butterflies overwinter in restricted areas in montane oyamel fir forests in central Mexico with specific microclimates that allow the butterflies to survive for up to 5 months. We use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to identify areas adequate for overwintering monarch colonies under both current and future climate scenarios. The ENM approach permits… (More)

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3 Figures and Tables