Modeling complexity in musical rhythm

  title={Modeling complexity in musical rhythm},
  author={Cheng-Yuan Liou and Tai-Hei Wu and Chia-Ying Lee},
This article constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity, 2010 

Tables from this paper

Musiplectics: computational assessment of the complexity of music scores
Musiplectics can engender the creation of practical computing tools for objective and expeditious assessment of a music score's suitability for the abilities of intended performers.
Complexity analysis of music
This work shows how to measure composer style's comprehensiveness by performing measurements on Barlow and Morgenstern dictionary of 10, 000 classical themes. This measure can partially reveal the
Structure sensitive complexity for symbol-free sequences
The extended method is proposed, based on L-system and topological entropy for context-free grammar, that demonstrates enough sensitivity to extract quasi-regular structured fragments of Chinese texts and to detect irregular styled samples of music inputs.
Experimenting with a Generalized Rhythmic Density Function for Live Coding
A previously implemented realtime algorithmic composition system with live coding interface had rhythm functions which produced stylistically limited output and lacked flexibility. Through a cleaner
Syntactic Sensitive Complexity for Symbol-Free Sequence
This work uses L-system to model the text sequence. The sequence complexity is obtained by calculating the complexity of its modeling system. It can sense certain quasi-regular structures and serves
Subjective judgments of rhythmic complexity in Parkinson’s disease: Higher baseline, preserved relative ability, and modulated by tempo
This study constructed ten musical rhythms with a varied degree of complexity across three different tempi, and found a uniform elevated baseline for complexity judgments in the PD-group, and a strong association between the two groups’ rank-ordering the rhythms for complexity.
Probabilistic L-systems can look like the branches of plants and trees
Compared to the branching patterns of plants, turtle graphs appear too regular, however if the length of the trails of the offspring is randomized by 50% and some turtles produce only one offspring or none, then the turtle graphs a surprisingly similar to plant structures.
Probabilistic L-systems can look like the branches of plants and trees
L-systems are extremely simple algorithms: Visualize a turtle moving a distance d straight forward. At the end of its journey it produces two offspring, one branching of slightly to the left and the
Unsupervised Learning Introduction
What use can the brain make of the massive flow of sensory information that occurs without any associated rewards or punishments? This question is reviewed in the light of connectionist models of
Agent-based modelling and economic complexity: a diversified perspective
Purpose The term “agent-based modelling” (ABM) is a buzzword which is widely used in the scientific literature even though it refers to a variety of methodologies implemented in different


Growing Music: Musical Interpretations of L-Systems
This work searches for simultaneous ‘pleasing' graphical and musical renderings of L-systems, parallel generative grammars used to model plant development.
The Rhythmic Structure of Music
In this influential book on the subject of rhythm, the authors develop a theoretical framework based essentially on a Gestalt approach, viewing rhythmic experience in terms of pattern perception or
Score Generation with L-Systems
A new method for algorithmically generating musical scores is presented and illustrated with examples. The idea is to produce a string of symbols using an L−system, and to interpret this string as a
Reduced Memory Representations for Music
Agreement among the musicians' improvisations, the network model, and music-theoretic predictions suggest that perceived constancy across musical variation is a natural result of a reductionist mechanism for producing memory representations.
Complexity: Hierarchical Structures and Scaling in Physics
Part I. Phenomenology and Models: Examples of complex behaviour and Mathematical models and Thermodynamic formalism.
Rhythm Perception and Production
Part I: Mental Timekeepers Internal Clocks, Oscillators and Complex Dynamics 1. Timekeepers versus nonlinear oscillators: How the approaches differ 2. Considerations regarding a comprehensive model
On the Entropy of Context-Free Languages
  • W. Kuich
  • Computer Science
    Inf. Control.
  • 1970
Neural Computation
The nervous system is able to develop by combining on one hand a only limited amount of genetic information and, on the other hand, the input it receives, and it might be possible to develop a brain from there.
The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants
Graphical modeling using L-systems and turtle interpretation of symbols for plant models and iterated function systems, and Fractal properties of plants.
Unsupervised Learning
  • H. Barlow
  • Computer Science
    Neural Computation
  • 1989
It is argued that the redundancy of sensory messages provides the knowledge incorporated in the maps or models and a representation whose elements are independent makes it possible to form associations with logical functions of the elements, not just with the elements themselves.