Modeling Response Times for Two-Choice Decisions

  title={Modeling Response Times for Two-Choice Decisions},
  author={Roger Ratcliff and Jeffrey N. Rouder},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={347 - 356}
The diffusion model for two-choice real-time decisions is applied to four psychophysical tasks. The model reveals how stimulus information guides decisions and shows how the information is processed through time to yield sometimes correct and sometimes incorrect decisions. Rapid two-choice decisions yield multiple empirical measures: response times for correct and error responses, the probabilities of correct and error responses, and a variety of interactions between accuracy and response time… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The Diffusion Decision Model: Theory and Data for Two-Choice Decision Tasks

The diffusion decision model is reviewed to show how it translates behavioral data accuracy, mean response times, and response time distributions into components of cognitive processing, including research in the domains of aging and neurophysiology.

A Diffusion Model Account of Criterion Shifts in the Lexical Decision Task.

Evidence for time‐variant decision making

  • J. Ditterich
  • Psychology
    The European journal of neuroscience
  • 2006
It is demonstrated that a time‐variant version of the diffusion model can explain the psychometric function, the mean response times and the shape of the response time distributions, and it is suggested that the brain trades off speed and accuracy not only by adjusting parameters between trials but also by dynamic adjustments during an ongoing decision.

Can Post-Error Dynamics Explain Sequential Reaction Time Patterns?

The results suggest that error-based parameter adjustments are critical to modeling sequential effects, and it is shown that simple, sequential updates to the initial condition and thresholds of a pure drift diffusion model can account for the trends in RT for correct and error trials.

Modeling aging effects on two-choice tasks: response signal and response time data.

Overall, the results were consistent with earlier fits of the diffusion model to the standardRT task for college-age participants and to the data from aging studies using this task in the standard RT procedure.

Not all Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off Manipulations Have the Same Psychological Effect

It is shown that the distribution of choices and response times depends on specific task instructions, which supports the notion of an “urgency” signal that influences decision-making under some time-critical conditions, but not others.

Modeling reaction time and accuracy of multiple-alternative decisions

Several sequential-sampling models using racing diffusion processes for multiple-alternative decisions were evaluated, using data from two perceptual discrimination experiments, finding the best-fitting models had zero to moderate values of decay, had no inhibition, and assumed that the addition of alternatives affected the sub processes contributing to the nondecisional time.

A comparison of macaque behavior and superior colliculus neuronal activity to predictions from models of two-choice decisions.

It is suggested that prelude/buildup cells in the superior colliculus, or cells in circuits in which the superior Colliculus cells participate, implement a diffusion decision process or a variant of the diffusion process.

Mathematical Models of Cognitive Control: Design, Comparison, and Optimization

In this thesis, we investigate human decision making dynamics in a series of simple perceptual decision making tasks. The level of caution with which a human subject responds to stimuli is of central

The Attentional Drift Diffusion Model of Simple Perceptual Decision-Making

Evidence is found for sizable attentional choice biases and that the aDDM provides a reasonable quantitative description of the relationship between fluctuations in visual attention, choices and reaction times.



The elusive tradeoff: Speed vs accuracy in visual discrimination tasks

A final discussion examines implications of the results for models of discrimination under time pressure, and suggests modifications in present models, focusing on the random walk model, and describes an alternative “deadline” model.

The accumulator model of two-choice discrimination

Effects of decision criterion on response latencies of binary decisions

It is proposed that the decision criterion is the primary determinant of response latencies of binary decisions and showed a maximum at the criterion in all conditions.

Theoretical interpretations of the speed and accuracy of positive and negative responses.

One particular model, the diffusion model of Ratcliff (1981), is fitted to the data from three published experiments and the results provide a clear interpretation of the reaction time difference in terms of criteria settings, and it is concluded that interpretation of such positive-negative reaction time differences in the absence of a specific model is hazardous at best.

Connectionist and diffusion models of reaction time.

Two connectionist frameworks, GRAIN and brain-state-in-a-box, and R. Ratcliff's diffusion model were evaluated using data from a signal detection task, showing that the long tradition of reaction-time research and theory is a fertile domain for development and testing of connectionist assumptions about how decisions are generated over time.

A recruitment theory of simple behavior

A statistical theory of choice is developed using a sequential sampling assumption. Response latency distributions for certain simple reaction-time situations are derived and tested. Both response

Continuous versus discrete information processing modeling accumulation of partial information.

Results obtained from Meyer et al?s (1988) new technique give important qualitative support to some stochastic models and impressive quantitative support to the continuous diffusion model.

Models for choice-reaction time

In the two-choice situation, the Wald sequential probability ratio decision procedure is applied to relate the mean and variance of the decision times, for each alternative separately, to the error

Retrieval Processes in Recognition Memory

A strong case is made for the study of distributional properties of reaction time data by showing how some current theories of recognition memory are inadequate or wrong when examined in the light of distributiona l analyses.

Strategies and automaticity. I: Basic findings and conceptual framework

The contributions of strategic and data-driven factors to skilled performance were evaluated by manipulating the predictability of the class of stimuli used in a memory search task. In Experiment 1,