Model‐Based Drug Development: A Rational Approach to Efficiently Accelerate Drug Development

@article{Milligan2013ModelBasedDD,
  title={Model‐Based Drug Development: A Rational Approach to Efficiently Accelerate Drug Development},
  author={P A Milligan and Marilyn J. Brown and Byron Marchant and S W Martin and Piet H. Graaf and Neil Benson and Germana de Nucci and D J Nichols and Rebecca A. Boyd and Jaap W. Mandema and Sriram Krishnaswami and S. H. Zwillich and David Gruben and Richard J. Anziano and Thomas C. Stock and Richard L. Lalonde},
  journal={Clinical Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},
  year={2013},
  volume={93}
}
The pharmaceutical industry continues to face significant challenges. Very few compounds that enter development reach the marketplace, and the investment required for each success can surpass $1.8 billion. Despite attempts to improve efficiency and increase productivity, total investment continues to rise whereas the output of new medicines declines. With costs increasing exponentially through each development phase, it is failure in phase II and phase III that is most wasteful. In today's… 
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