Mobile Elements: Drivers of Genome Evolution

  title={Mobile Elements: Drivers of Genome Evolution},
  author={Haig H. Kazazian},
  pages={1626 - 1632}
Mobile elements within genomes have driven genome evolution in diverse ways. Particularly in plants and mammals, retrotransposons have accumulated to constitute a large fraction of the genome and have shaped both genes and the entire genome. Although the host can often control their numbers, massive expansions of retrotransposons have been tolerated during evolution. Now mobile elements are becoming useful tools for learning more about genome evolution and gene function. 
Fungal Transposable Elements
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile and mostly repetitive genetic elements, which are ubiquitously distributed throughout all kingdoms. They are able to change their position within the genome and
Modulation of host genes by mammalian transposable elements.
The consequences of exaptation of sequences originated in tansposable elements with focus on events that influence protein coding genes are discussed.
A Review on Transposons and its Utilization as Genetic Tool
Transposable elements (jumping genes, insertion sequences or mobile DNA elements) are short sequences of DNA that can move from one location to the other in the genome, often making duplicate copies
The ecology of the genome — mobile DNA elements and their hosts
An analogy is developed between the components of the genome, including mobile DNA elements, and an ecological community.
Mobile elements and genome evolution
The review considers the distribution of MEs from different classes in various genomes, individual chromosomes, and chromatin types and thinks that ME invasion and subsequent amplification act as a main morphogenetic factor ensuring adaptation of populations to environmental changes and, in some cases, cause rapid speciation.
Transposable elements and their identification.
An overview of transposable elements (TEs) biodiversity and their impact on genomic evolution is presented.
The Contribution of Transposable Elements to Human Proteins
The human genome contains hundreds of genes with protein-coding exons and even complete open reading frames derived from transposable elements, demonstrating the importance of transposability elements as a genomic pool of coding sequences for the creation and evolution of gene functions.
Role of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Evolution of the Plant Genome
This chapter focuses on the mechanism of contacts between two species, vectors, and acquisition of genetic elements, and also discusses the possible impacts on the evolution of plants.
Horizontal Transfers and the New Model of TE-Driven Genome Evolution in Eukaryotes
It is proposed that the horizontal transfer of transposable elements (HTTs) is a key mechanism of long-term survival of TEs in eukaryotic genomes, by allowing TEs to escape from the silencing machinery of their host genome.


Fruit flies and humans respond differently to retrotransposons.
The outs and ins of transposition: from Mu to Kangaroo
Transposons are ubiquitous in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and are major determinants of genome structure. Transposition — the movement of discrete segments of DNA without a requirement for
Nonmethylated transposable elements and methylated genes in a chordate genome.
The genome of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis was found to be a stable mosaic of methylated and nonmethylated domains, which are incompatible with the genome defense model, which proposes that DNA methylation in animals is primarily targeted to endogenous transposable elements.
Nested Retrotransposons in the Intergenic Regions of the Maize Genome
Diagnostic sequencing indicated that a 280-kilobase region containing the maize Adh1-F and u22 genes is composed primarily of retrotransposons inserted within each other, and ten retroelement families were discovered.
Integration of the yeast retrotransposon Ty1 is targeted to regions upstream of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III.
Ty1 has evolved a powerful targeting mechanism, requiring Pol III transcription to integrate its DNA at very specific locations within the yeast genome.
Retroelements containing introns in diverse invertebrate taxa
We report that two structurally similar transposable elements containing reverse transcriptase (RT), Penelope in Drosophila virilis and Athena in bdelloid rotifers, have proliferated as copies
Alu repeats and human genomic diversity
During the past 65 million years, Alu elements have propagated to more than one million copies in primate genomes, which has resulted in the generation of a series of Alu subfamilies of different
Biology of mammalian L1 retrotransposons.
L1 retrotransposons comprise 17% of the human genome and may find other practical applications in gene discovery following insertional mutagenesis in mice and in the delivery of therapeutic genes.
Retrotransposons provide an evolutionarily robust non-telomerase mechanism to maintain telomeres.
Analysis of HeT-A and TART is providing insight into the evolution of chromosomes, retrotransposons, and retroviruses, and recent studies show that Retrotransposon telomeres constitute a robust system for maintaining chromosome ends.