Mixed flocks and polyspecific associations: Costs and benefits of mixed groups to birds and monkeys

@article{Terborgh1990MixedFA,
  title={Mixed flocks and polyspecific associations: Costs and benefits of mixed groups to birds and monkeys},
  author={John Terborgh},
  journal={American Journal of Primatology},
  year={1990},
  volume={21}
}
  • J. Terborgh
  • Published 1990
  • Environmental Science
  • American Journal of Primatology
This review examines the diversity of avian mixed foraging flocks with the goal of relating the conclusions to primate polyspecific associations. Mixed associations are considered as adaptations for achieving an optimal balance between predator protection and feeding efficiency. In open habitat, predator and prey are able to detect each other at a distance and feeding competition is low, especially in species that subsist on a homogeneously distributed food supply. These conditions favor large… 
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Why do birds participate in mixed-species foraging flocks? A large-scale synthesis
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Predation reduction, through improvement of surveillance, appears to be an important function of mixed species flocked species, and support for this conclusion is still largely indirect, but increasing field evidence is accumulating.
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