Mixed Embeddedness: (In)formal Economic Activities and Immigrant Businesses in the Netherlands

  title={Mixed Embeddedness: (In)formal Economic Activities and Immigrant Businesses in the Netherlands},
  author={Robert C. Kloosterman and Joanne van der Leun and J. C. Rath},
  journal={International Journal of Urban and Regional Research},
Immigrants from non-industrialized countries have become part and parcel of the social fabric of many advanced urban economies, including those in the Netherlands. A significant number of these migrants opt for setting up shop themselves. Lacking access to large financial resources and mostly lacking in educational qualifications, they are funnelled towards the lower end of the opportunity structure of these urban economies. To survive in these cut-throat markets, many migrant entrepreneurs… 

Figures from this paper

Working on the fringes. Immigrant businesses, economic integration and informal practices

The emerging post-industrial urban economies are characterized by a renaissance of small businesses. As numerous examples from many cities in the European Union, and in advanced economies in general,

Making it Work: The Mixed Embeddedness of Immigrant Entrepreneurs in New Zealand

In seeking economic immigrants, especially those who are skilled, entrepreneurial and with capital to invest, a settler country such as New Zealand has assumed that national and city labour

Immigrants' Entrepreneurial Opportunities: The Case of the Chinese in Portugal

Why do some foreign nationalities seem to have entrepreneurial initiatives and others don’t? Why do certain foreign communities tend to build an ethnic economy, and others melt in the economy of the

Immigrants' Entrepreneurial Opportunities: The Case of the Chinese in Portugal

Why do some foreign nationalities seem to have entrepreneurial initiatives and others don't? Why do certain foreign communities tend to build an ethnic economy, and others melt in the economy of the

Mixing Ethnic and Non-ethnic Economic Strategies: Migrant Entrepreneurs in Zagreb

The article analyses small and medium scale entrepreneurial activities of foreign nationals in Zagreb, the Croatian capital. Migrants’ businesses in the hospitality sector are analysed against the

Super-diverse Britain and new migrant enterprises

Diversity has been framed either as positive for economic dynamism and prosperity in British urban spaces, contributing to greater competitiveness, attractiveness of cosmopolitan lifestyle as well as

Job Search and Network Dynamics: The Socioeconomic Transformation of Koreans in Japan

As interest in ethnic groups and their entrepreneurial activities has grown in recent years, economic sociology, immigration and ethnic studies, and economic geography have come to emphasize . the

Just for Starters: Commercial Gentrification by Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Amsterdam and Rotterdam Neighbourhoods

Many large European cities are now displaying clear social, ethnic and spatial divisions. These different types of cleavages tend to overlap. Governments try to chase away this spectre of an

Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Spain Concepts, Kinds of Business and Advances in Research

The development of ethnic economies, a business formula which immigrant groups create for themselves, connects their home country and their destination, configuring a transnational economic influence



Immigrant Entrepreneurship and the Institutional Context: A Theoretical Exploration

The entrepreneurial resurgence that started in the United States in the early 1970s was not recognised immediately. Buried in the annual avalanche of statistics, both this resurgence and the

Location Matters: Ethnic Entrepreneurs and the Spatial Context

A multitude of explanations have been offered for the start of ethnic enterprises.2 The majority of these explanations emphasise cultural characteristics that are peculiar to ethnic groups, for

Mixed experiences: Post industrial transition and ethnic minorities on the Amsterdam labour market

Abstract The emerging post‐industrial social stratification in The Netherlands appears to have an ethnic dimension. This ethnic dimension manifests itself most clearly in the larger cities, mainly

Ethnic Minority Business: Theoretical Discourse in Britain and North America

One of the most novel features of recent labour market change in Europe and North America has been the increasing prominence of ethnic minority self-employment. Two decades of radical economic

Across the border: immigrants' economic opportunities, social capital and informal business activities.

The potential for informal economic activities by immigrants in large Dutch cities has been growing since the early 1980s and an overview of important trends on both the demand and the supply side of entrepreneurial activities in the informal economy is given.

Restructuring of the Labour Market and the Role of Third World Migrations in Europe

  • E. Pugliese
  • Economics
    Environment and planning. D, Society & space
  • 1993
The author singles out, first, the main differences between the present migratory waves and the intra-European migrations of the 1960s and 1970s.

Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action

This article contributes to the reemerging field of economic sociology by (1) delving into its classic roots to refine current concepts and (2) using examples from the immigration literature to

Making it Underground: Comparative Material on the Informal Sector in Western Market Economies

This paper examines the informal economy and its relationship to commonly held theories of industrial development. Although these theories stem from very different intellectual traditions, their

A Theory of Middleman Minorities

Investigates the "middleman minorities," a term coined by Blalock. Included in this classification are Jews in Europe, the Chinese in Southeast Asia, and Greeks in the United States. Previous works

State Regulatory Regimes and Immigrants’ Informal Economic Activity

Immigration scholars tend to agree that democratic states possess only a modest capacity to control the movement of peoples across their borders and are structurally vulnerable to illegal migration,