Mitral valve replacement in the presence of severe valvular and annular calcification.


Degenerative and rheumatic mitral valve disease are associated with calcification of the annulus, leaflets, and subvalvular mechanism. Surgical treatment is greatly affected by the presence of such calcification, which frequently precludes successful repair, mandating valve replacement. Dense calcification of the posterior leaflet, annulus, and chordae can… (More)


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