Mitochondrial transformation in yeast by bombardment with microprojectiles.

@article{Johnston1988MitochondrialTI,
  title={Mitochondrial transformation in yeast by bombardment with microprojectiles.},
  author={Stephen A. Johnston and Paul Q. Anziano and Katherine B Shark and John C. Sanford and Ronald A. Butow},
  journal={Science},
  year={1988},
  volume={240 4858},
  pages={1538-41}
}
The genetic transformation of mitochondria and chloroplasts has been an intractable problem. The newly developed "biolistic" (biological ballistic) process was used to deliver DNA into yeast cells to stably transform their mitochondria. A nonreverting strain, which is respiratory deficient because of a deletion in the mitochondrial oxi3 gene, was bombarded with tungsten microprojectiles coated with DNA bearing sequences that could correct the oxi3 deletion. Respiratory-competent transformants… CONTINUE READING