Mitochondrial localization of Smad5 in a human chondrogenic cell line.


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily and regulate the formation of cartilage and bone tissues as well as other key events during development. TGF-beta superfamily signaling is mediated intracellularly by Smad proteins, some of which can translocate into the cell nucleus and influence… (More)


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