Mitochondrial genomes of extinct aurochs survive in domestic cattle

  title={Mitochondrial genomes of extinct aurochs survive in domestic cattle},
  author={Alessandro Achilli and Anna Olivieri and Marco Pellecchia and Cristina Uboldi and Licia Colli and Nadia Al-Zahery and Matteo Accetturo and Maria Pala and Baharak Hooshiar Kashani and Ugo A Perego and Vincenza Battaglia and Simona Fornarino and Javad Kalamati and Massoud Houshmand and Riccardo Negrini and Ornella Semino and Martin B. Richards and Vincent Macaulay and Luca Ferretti and Hans-J{\"u}rgen Bandelt and Paolo Ajmone-Marsan and Antonio Torroni},
  journal={Current Biology},

Figures from this paper

Complete mitochondrial genome of wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) reconstructed from ancient DNA.

The analysis provides the next step to the reconstruction of the demographic history of this extinct but still exciting species.

Mitochondrial genomes from modern horses reveal the major haplogroups that underwent domestication

Now that the major horse haplogroups have been defined, each with diagnostic mutational motifs (in both the coding and control regions), these haplotypes could be easily used to classify well-preserved ancient remains, assess the haplogroup variation of modern breeds, and evaluate the possible role of mtDNA backgrounds in racehorse performance.

Origin and Spread of Bos taurus: New Clues from Mitochondrial Genomes Belonging to Haplogroup T1

The data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes, and the previously identified “African-derived American" (AA) haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1).

A Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Mesolithic Wild Aurochs (Bos primigenius)

Background The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the

Genomic clues of the evolutionary history of Bos indicus cattle.

The combination of genomics with precision agriculture holds great promise for the identification of genetic variants affecting economically important traits such as tick resistance and heat tolerance, which were naturally selected for millennia and played a major role in the evolution of B. indicus cattle.

Genome sequencing of the extinct Eurasian wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle

Phylogenomic analyses place the aurochs as a distinct outgroup to the domestic B. taurus lineage, supporting the predominant Near Eastern origin of European cattle, and reveals that the interface between early European domestic populations and wild auroChs was significantly more complex than previously thought.

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of an 11,450-year-old Aurochsen (Bos primigenius) from Central Italy

Analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of a pre-Neolithic Italian aurochs supports the hypothesis that modern European breeds have multiple geographic origins and suggests that previously identified sub-groups within the widespread modern cattle mitochondrial T clade are polyphyletic.

Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus)

The intensive culling of breeding males and male-mediated crossbreeding of locally raised native breeds has accelerated loss of Y-chromosomal variation in domestic cattle, and affected the contribution of genetic drift to diversity, which should be prioritised in the conservation of cattle genetic resources.

Cattle mitogenome variation reveals a post-glacial expansion of haplogroup P and an early incorporation into northeast Asian domestic herds

A post-glacial expansion of aurochs carrying haplogroup P from Europe to Asia is revealed, which was incorporated into domestic cattle of continental northeastern Asia possibly ~ 3700 years ago and probably reached Japan about 650 years ago from Mongolia/Russia.


A comparative analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences for different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus, Bos indicus) with global genetic bank found polymorphic that characterizes large differentiation these animals for maternal and describe deep heterogeneous parent population of studied group.



Mitochondrial DNA variation and evolution of Japanese black cattle (Bos taurus).

Complete mitochondrial DNA displacement loop sequences from 32 Japanese Black cattle are described and the analysis of these data in conjunction with previously published sequences from African, European, and Indian subjects suggest an interchange of variants that may be ancient, perhaps a legacy of the first introduction of domesticates to East Asia.

The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA

The evidence collected corroborates the hypothesis of a common past migration: both humans and cattle reached Etruria from the Eastern Mediterranean area by sea, and the Eastern origin of Etruscans receives strong independent support.

Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to the data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population.

The origin of European cattle: evidence from modern and ancient DNA.

Previously undescribed genetic evidence is presented in contrast with this view based on mtDNA sequences from five Italian aurochsen dated between 7,000 and 17,000 years B.P. and >1,000 modern cattle from 51 breeds to suggest the European cattle may represent a more variable and valuable genetic resource than previously realized.

Genetic evidence for Near-Eastern origins of European cattle

The limited ranges of the wild progenitors of many of the primary European domestic species point to their origins further east in Anatolia or the fertile crescent. The wild ox (Bos primigenius),

Evidence for two independent domestications of cattle.

Application of a molecular clock suggests that the two major mtDNA clades diverged at least 200,000, and possibly as much as 1 million, years ago, as evidence for two separate domestication events of different subspecies of the aurochs, Bos primigenius and Bos taurus.

Genetics and domestic cattle origins

Patterns of genetic variants assayed from paternally, maternALLY, and biparentally inherited genetic systems reveal that extensive hybridization of the two subspecies is part of the ancestry of Northern Indian, peripheral European, and almost all African cattle breeds.

Cattle domestication in the Near East was followed by hybridization with aurochs bulls in Europe

The data suggest that the origin of domestic cattle may be far more complex than previously thought, and is more similar to haplotypes from ancient specimens of European aurochsen than to contemporary cattle breeds from southern Europe and the Near East.