Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov establishes the authenticity of the remains of Tsar Nicholas II

@article{Ivanov1996MitochondrialDS,
  title={Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov establishes the authenticity of the remains of Tsar Nicholas II},
  author={Pavel L. Ivanov and Mark J. Wadhams and Rhonda K. Roby and Mitchell M. Holland and Victor W. Weedn and Thomas J. Parsons},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
  year={1996},
  volume={12},
  pages={417-420}
}
In 1991, nine sets of skeletal remains were excavated from a mass grave near Yekaterinburg, Russia which were believed to include the Russian Tsar Nicholas II, the Tsarina Alexandra, and three of their daughters1. Nuclear DNA testing of the remains verified such a family group, and mito-chondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the presumed Tsarina matched a known maternal relative, Prince Philip2. mtDNA sequences from bone of the presumed Tsar matched two living maternal relatives except at a single… 
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