Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: Synthesis and in vitro studies

@article{Antonenko2008MitochondriatargetedPD,
  title={Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: Synthesis and in vitro studies},
  author={Yu. N. Antonenko and Armine V Avetisyan and Lora E. Bakeeva and Boris V Chernyak and V A Chertkov and Lidia V. Domnina and Olga Yu. Ivanova and Denis S Izyumov and Ljudmila S. Khailova and Sergey S. Klishin and Galina A. Korshunova and Konstantin G. Lyamzaev and Maria S. Muntyan and Olga K Nepryakhina and Alina A Pashkovskaya and Olga Yu Pletjushkina and Antonina V. Pustovidko and Vitaly Roginsky and Tatyana I Rokitskaya and Enno K Ruuge and Valeriya B. Saprunova and Inna I. Severina and Ruben A. Simonyan and Innokenty V. Skulachev and Maxim V. Skulachev and Natalia V. Sumbatyan and I. V. Sviryaeva and Vadim N. Tashlitsky and J. M. Vassiliev and Mikhail Yu. Vyssokikh and Lev S. Yaguzhinsky and Alexander A. Zamyatnin and Vladimir P. Skulachev},
  journal={Biochemistry (Moscow)},
  year={2008},
  volume={73},
  pages={1273-1287}
}
Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described. It is shown that SkQs (i) easily penetrate through planar, mitochondrial, and outer cell membranes, (ii) at low (nanomolar) concentrations, posses strong antioxidant activity in aqueous solution, BLM, lipid micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and cells, (iii) at higher (micromolar) concentrations… CONTINUE READING
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