Mitigating Anticipated Effects of Systematic Errors Supports Sister-Group Relationship between Xenacoelomorpha and Ambulacraria

@article{Philippe2019MitigatingAE,
  title={Mitigating Anticipated Effects of Systematic Errors Supports Sister-Group Relationship between Xenacoelomorpha and Ambulacraria},
  author={Herv{\'e} Philippe and Albert J. Poustka and Marta Chiodin and Katharina J. Hoff and Christophe Dessimoz and Bartłomiej Tomiczek and Philipp H. Schiffer and Steven M{\"u}ller and Daryl B Domman and Matthias Horn and Heiner Kuhl and Bernd Timmermann and Nori Satoh and Tomoe Hikosaka-Katayama and Hiroaki Nakano and Matthew L. Rowe and Maurice R. Elphick and Morgane Thomas-Chollier and Thomas Hankeln and Florian Mertes and Andreas Wallberg and Jonathan P. Rast and Richard R. Copley and Pedro Martinez and Maximilian J. Telford},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={2019},
  volume={29},
  pages={1818-1826.e6}
}
Xenoturbella and the acoelomorph worms (Xenacoelomorpha) are simple marine animals with controversial affinities. They have been placed as the sister group of all other bilaterian animals (Nephrozoa hypothesis), implying their simplicity is an ancient characteristic [1, 2]; alternatively, they have been linked to the complex Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) in a clade called the Xenambulacraria [3-5], suggesting their simplicity evolved by reduction from a complex ancestor. The… Expand
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The position of Xenacoelomorpha in the tree of life remains a major unresolved question in the study of deep animal relationships. Xenacoelomorpha, comprising Acoela, Nemertodermatida, andExpand
Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella
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This phylogeny makes sense of the shared characteristics of Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha, and implies the loss of various deuterostome characters in the Xenobiology including coelomic cavities, through gut and gill slits. Expand
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The results strongly support sponges as the sister group of all other animals and provide further evidence that Ctenophora-sister represents a tree reconstruction artifact. Expand
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TLDR
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