Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management.

@article{Gibson2013MisplacedCV,
  title={Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management.},
  author={Frank Gibson and A. Bodenham},
  journal={British journal of anaesthesia},
  year={2013},
  volume={110 3},
  pages={333-46}
}
Large numbers of central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year and misplacement occurs frequently. This review outlines the normal and abnormal anatomy of the central veins in relation to the placement of CVCs. An understanding of normal and variant anatomy enables identification of congenital and acquired abnormalities. Embryological variations such as a persistent left-sided superior vena cava are often diagnosed incidentally only after placement of a CVC, which is seen to take an… CONTINUE READING