Misinformation, disinformation, and violent conflict: from Iraq and the "War on Terror" to future threats to peace.

@article{Lewandowsky2013MisinformationDA,
  title={Misinformation, disinformation, and violent conflict: from Iraq and the "War on Terror" to future threats to peace.},
  author={Stephan Lewandowsky and Werner G. K. Stritzke and Alexandra M. Freund and Klaus Oberauer and Joachim Israel Krueger},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  year={2013},
  volume={68 7},
  pages={
          487-501
        }
}
The dissemination and control of information are indispensable ingredients of violent conflict, with all parties involved in a conflict or at war seeking to frame the discussion on their own terms. Those attempts at information control often involve the dissemination of misinformation or disinformation (i.e., information that is incorrect by accident or intent, respectively). We review the way in which misinformation can facilitate violent conflicts and, conversely, how the successful… 

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The role of progressive change, that is, of psychological, behavioral, and social evolution, in both extreme violence and positive relations between groups is stressed; the role of passive bystanders in the unfolding of violence; and therole of active bystandership in the prevention of violence, in the promotion of reconciliation, and in the development of harmonious societies are stressed.
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