Mirror neurons

@article{Keysers2009MirrorN,
  title={Mirror neurons},
  author={Christian Keysers},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={2009},
  volume={19},
  pages={R971-R973}
}
  • C. Keysers
  • Published 17 November 2009
  • Medicine
  • Current Biology
The term mirror neurons originally referred to neurons in the ventral premotor cortex of macaque monkeys (area F5, Figure 1a) that have the particularity of responding both when the monkey performs a particular action (e.g., grasping a peanut) and when the monkey perceives another individual performing a similar action. More recently the term mirror has been extended to areas of the human brain that have similar properties. Mirror neurons may explain a large number of social cognitive functions… 
Mirror Neurons in a New World Monkey, Common Marmoset
TLDR
The finding that neurons in the ventrolateral frontal cortex with characteristic “mirror” properties quite similar to those in macaques are found suggests that mirror neurons occur in a common ancestor of New and Old World monkeys and its common properties are preserved during the course of primate evolution.
Space-Dependent Representation of Objects and Other's Action in Monkey Ventral Premotor Grasping Neurons
TLDR
Interestingly, canonical-mirror neurons appear to code object as target for both one's own and other's action, suggesting that they could play a role in predictive representation of others' impending actions.
Mirror neurons: from origin to function.
TLDR
It is argued that mirror neurons are forged by domain-general processes of associative learning in the course of individual development, and, although they may have psychological functions, they do not necessarily have a specific evolutionary purpose or adaptive function.
Does dysfunction of the mirror neuron system contribute to symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
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The origin, cortical distribution and possible functions of mirror neurons are discussed as a background to exploring their potential relevance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Cortical Motor Organization, Mirror Neurons, and Embodied Language: An Evolutionary Perspective
The recent conceptual achievement that the cortical motor system plays a crucial role not only in motor control but also in higher cognitive functions has given a new perspective also on the
Grasping actions and social interaction: neural bases and anatomical circuitry in the monkey
TLDR
This review describes the anatomical structure of the motor cortex in the monkey and the cortical and sub-cortical connections of the different motor areas, and describes the mirror mechanism, which relies on a more extended network than previously thought, and possibly subserves basic social functions.
What Neuromodulation and Lesion studies tell us about the function of the mirror neuron system and embodied cognition
TLDR
Neuromodulation and lesion studies that address how activations in the mirror neuron system contribute to the authors' perception of observed actions are reviewed, suggesting embodied representations are somatosensory-motor.
Multisynaptic Projections from the Amygdala to the Ventral Premotor Cortex in Macaque Monkeys: Anatomical Substrate for Feeding Behavior
TLDR
The amygdalar origin and possible route of multisynaptic projections to PMv in macaque monkeys are identified and it is revealed that PMv receives disynaptic input primarily from the basal nucleus, especially from its intermediate subdivision.
The plasticity of the mirror system: How reward learning modulates cortical motor simulation of others
TLDR
Alpha/beta mu suppression in response to rewarding faces was found to be greater than for non-rewarding faces, providing a mechanistic insight into the plasticity of the MNS and, more generally, into the role of reward in modulating physiological responses linked to empathy.
Neural mirroring systems: Exploring the EEG mu rhythm in human infancy
TLDR
Electroencephalographic techniques for assessing mu rhythm desynchronization in infancy are focused on, and how this work illuminates the links between action perception and production prior to the onset of language is analyzed.
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