Mirror image processing in three marine mammal species: killer whales (Orcinus orca), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

  title={Mirror image processing in three marine mammal species: killer whales (Orcinus orca), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)},
  author={Fabienne Delfour and Ken Marten},
  journal={Behavioural Processes},
  • F. Delfour, K. Marten
  • Published 26 April 2001
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • Behavioural Processes
Underwater Mirror Exposure to Free-Ranging Naïve Atlantic Spotted Dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in the Bahamas
This work describes the reaction of free-ranging dolphins during 14 exposures to the presence of a mirror from 1994/1995 and 2004/2005 and suggests that the animals assign different meanings to a mirror in the wild versus the same object in captivity.
The welfare of bottlenose dolphins and killer whales in captivity
It is the conclusion that it is very difficult to keep bottlenose dolphins and killer whales in captivity and maintain animal welfare at a satisfactory level.
Marine mammal cognition and captive care: A proposal for cognitive enrichment in zoos and aquariums
It is suggested that tasks originally developed to test the limits of dolphin and sea lion cognitive skill could be modified and implemented as ‘cognitive enrichment’ in zoos and aquariums.
Can Sea Lions' (Zalophus californianus) Use Mirrors to Locate an Object?
The results suggest that sea lions have the ability to use mirrors to locate an object with minimal exposure to a mirror, but likely need additional experience with mirrors to efficiently use the properties of these reflective surfaces and understand that the image is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object.
Contingency checking and self-directed behaviors in giant manta rays: Do elasmobranchs have self-awareness?
Evidence is shown for behavioral responses to a mirror that are prerequisite of self-awareness and which has been used to confirm self-recognition in apes.
Neuroanatomy of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) from magnetic resonance images.
The first series of MRI-based anatomically labeled sectioned images of the brain of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) are presented, showing an exceptional degree of cortical elaboration in the insular cortex, temporal operculum, and the cortical limbic lobe.
Production and perception of acoustic signals in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) : contextual use of social signals and recognition of artificial labels
The results obtained during this thesis suggest that some social signals in the dolphin repertoire can be used to communicate specific information about the behavioural contexts of the individuals involved and that individuals are able to generalize their concept of identity for human-generated signals.
SHORT COMMUNICATION A Bottlenose Dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus) Responses to Its Mirror Image: Further Analysis
In the present study we provide more specific analyses of the responses of a subadult bottlenose dol- phin (Tursiops truncatus) to a mirror from an earlier study. An ethogram was constructed in order
Mirror‐mediated responses of California scrub jays ( Aphelocoma californica ) during a caching task and the mark test
The results provide mixed evidence of the mirror self‐recognition abilities of California scrub jays and highlight the need to develop alternative approaches for evaluating mirror self- recognition in non‐human animals to better understand its relationship with complex social cognition.
Developing an Archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix) Ethogram to Examine Self-Recognition and Mirror-Image Discrimination
Self-recognition is a definitive aspect of consciousness, leading to several experiments testing it in a range of animal taxa. The most famous of these has been the mark test, which measures a


Self‐awareness and the emergence of mind in primates
  • G. G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Biology
    American journal of primatology
  • 1982
An attempt is made to show that self‐awareness, consciousness, and mind are not mutually exclusive cognitive categories and that the emergence of self-awareness may be equivalent to the emergenceof mind.
Self recognition in primates: A comparative approach to the bidirectional properties of consciousness.
A technique is described in which organisms are provided with extended exposure to mirrors and then given an explicit test of self-recognition (accomplished through the unobtrusive application of
: I studied behavior and range patterns of individual bottlenose dolphins during 1984 in the mid-eastern Gulf of California, Mexico. Dolphin sighting rate was significantly higher in areas close to
Using Self-View Television to Distinguish between Self-Examination and Social Behavior in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
Self-view television was used as a manipulatable mirror to distinguish between self-examination and social behavior, and the results suggest self- examination over social behavior.
A developmental approach to the origins of self-recognition in great apes
An hypothesis to explain the presence of mirror self-recognition (MSR) in great apes and human infants, and the absence of MSR in monkeys is presented.
The development of self-recognition: a review.
Studying infants' responses to their reflections in mirrors shows that contingency of movement is a salient cue which is learned early, and that attempts to engage in contingent play and to imitate representations of oneself are useful measures of early self- recognition.
Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.
Seven major types of sampling for observational studies of social behavior have been found in the literature and the major strengths and weaknesses of each method are pointed out.
On attributing consciousness to animals
Before we can attribute consciousness to animals we must first decide on our definition of the word.
Evidence of self-awareness in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).
This chapter reports on the results of a series of studies utilizing a mirror to assess whether dolphins recognize contingent representations of themselves or use the mirror to examine an area of the body not otherwise visible that has been marked with a highly salient substance.