Effects of suppressed bone remodeling by minodronic acid and alendronate on bone mass, microdamage accumulation, collagen crosslinks and bone mechanical properties in the lumbar vertebra of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.
Minodronic acid is an aminobisphosphonate that is an antagonist of purinergic P2X2/3 receptors involved in pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and distribution of minodronic acid and the potential for P2X2/3 receptor antagonism based on the estimated concentration of minodronic acid. Microlocalization of radiolabeled minodronic acid was examined in the femur of neonatal rats. The bone-binding characteristics of minodronic acid and morphological changes in osteoclasts were analyzed in vitro. The minodronic acid concentration around bone resorption lacunae was predicted based on bone binding and the shape of lacunae. In microautoradiography, radioactive silver grains were abundant in bone-attached osteoclasts and were detected in calcified and ossification zones and in the cytoplasm of osteoclasts but not in the hypertrophic cartilage zone. In an osteoclast culture with 1 µM minodronic acid, 65% of minodronic acid was bound to bone, and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide release was inhibited by 96%. Cultured osteoclasts without minodronic acid treatment formed ruffled borders and bone resorption lacunae and had rich cytoplasm, whereas those treated with 1 µM minodronic acid were not multinucleated, stained densely with toluidine blue, and were detached from the bone surface. In the 1 µM culture, the estimated minodronic acid concentration in resorption lacunae was 880 µM, which is higher than the IC50 for minodronic acid antagonism of P2X2/3 receptors. Thus, inhibition of P2X2/3 receptors around osteoclasts may contribute to the analgesic effect of minodronic acid.