Urinary kallikrein 10 predicts the incurability of gastric cancer
As our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression has increased, so too have more effective, less toxic, and targeted therapies begun to reach the clinic. However, the full impact of these clinical advances and the practical success of the emerging field of precision medicine are dependent on the discovery and validation of sensitive and accurate biomarkers that can enable appropriate and rigorous sample type and patient selection, reliable longitudinal monitoring of therapeutic efficacy, and even risk assessment and early detection. Within the context of this review, we examine state-of-the-art approaches to the discovery and validation of noninvasive cancer biomarkers, with a specific emphasis on those that are protein or protein-associated ones. We also review sample selection strategies, currently utilized proteomic approaches for both discovery and validation requirements, and data analysis standards. Finally, we provide examples of these elements of biomarker discovery and validation from our own biomarker research.