Minimising exposure to respiratory droplets, ‘jet riders’ and aerosols in air-conditioned hospital rooms by a ‘Shield-and-Sink’ strategy

  title={Minimising exposure to respiratory droplets, ‘jet riders’ and aerosols in air-conditioned hospital rooms by a ‘Shield-and-Sink’ strategy},
  author={Patrick R. Hunziker},
  journal={BMJ Open},
  • P. Hunziker
  • Published 16 December 2020
  • Environmental Science
  • BMJ Open
Objectives In COVID-19, transfer of respiratory materials transmits disease and drives the pandemic but the interplay of droplet and aerosol physics, physiology and environment is not fully understood. To advance understanding of disease transmission mechanisms and to find novel exposure minimisation strategies, we studied cough-driven material transport modes and the efficacy of control strategies. Design Computer simulations and real-world experiments were used for integrating an intensive… 


Particle sizes of infectious aerosols: implications for infection control
  • K. Fennelly
  • Medicine, Environmental Science
    The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
  • 2020
On coughing and airborne droplet transmission to humans
It is found that human saliva-disease-carrier droplets may travel up to unexpected considerable distances depending on the wind speed, which implies that considering the environmental conditions, the 2 m social distance may not be sufficient.
Recognition of aerosol transmission of infectious agents: a commentary
This review considers the commonly used term of ‘aerosol transmission’ in the context of some infectious agents that are well-recognized to be transmissible via the airborne route, and discusses other agents, like influenza virus, where the potential for airborne transmission is much more dependent on various host, viral and environmental factors, and where its potential for aerosol transmission may be underestimated.
Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases
Measurements of Airborne Influenza Virus in Aerosol Particles from Human Coughs
The results show that coughing by influenza patients emits aerosol particles containing influenza virus and that much of the viral RNA is contained within particles in the respirable size range, supporting the idea that the airborne route may be a pathway for influenza transmission, especially in the immediate vicinity of an influenza patient.
Human Cough as a Two-Stage Jet and Its Role in Particle Transport
The results showed that the cough flow’s maximum penetration distance was in the range of a 50.6–85.5 opening diameter (D) under the authors' experimental conditions, and the real-cough and sinusoidal cases exhibited greater penetration ability than the pulsation cases under the same characteristic Reynolds number and normalized cough expired volume.
Consideration of the Aerosol Transmission for COVID‐19 and Public Health
The weight of the available evidence warrants immediate attention to address the significance of aerosols and implications for public health protection.
Airborne or Droplet Precautions for Health Workers Treating Coronavirus Disease 2019?
The weight of combined evidence supports airborne precautions for the occupational health and safety of health workers treating patients with COVID-19, and suggests that infections cannot neatly be separated into the dichotomy of droplet versus airborne transmission routes.
Transmission Potential of SARS-CoV-2 in Viral Shedding Observed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center
Air and surface samples collected during the initial isolation of 13 individuals confirmed positive with COVID-19 infection showed evidence of viral contamination, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 is shed to the environment as expired particles, during toileting, and through contact with fomites.