Mini ReviewFLT3: Receptor and Ligand

@article{Drexler2004MiniRR,
  title={Mini ReviewFLT3: Receptor and Ligand},
  author={Hans G Drexler and Hilmar Quentmeier},
  journal={Growth Factors},
  year={2004},
  volume={22},
  pages={71 - 73}
}
FLT3 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expressed by immature hematopoietic progenitor cells. The ligand for FLT3 is a transmembrane or soluble protein and is expressed by a variety of cells including hematopoietic and marrow stromal cells; in combination with other growth factors, the ligand stimulates proliferation and development of stem cells, myeloid and lymphoid progenitor cells, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Activation of the receptor leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of… 
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Differences in growth promotion, drug response and intracellular protein trafficking of FLT3 mutants
TLDR
Retention of D835y FLT3 mutant protein may cause altered signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of apoptotic signaling pathways leading to lower proliferation rate in FD-FLT3-D835Y than the FLT 3-WT and ITD mutant.
The duplicitous nature of the Lyn tyrosine kinase in growth factor signaling
TLDR
Developing a clear understanding of Lyn's role in establishing signaling thresholds in growth factor receptor signal amplification and signal inhibition may have important implications in the management of leukemias that may depend on Lyn activity.
Flt3 ligand enhances anti-tumor effects of antibody therapeutics.
FES kinases are required for oncogenic FLT3 signaling
TLDR
It is reported that both FES and FER kinases are activated in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts and in AML cell lines and mediate essential non-redundant functions downstream of FLT3-ITD.
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References

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TLDR
Results suggest that FLT3 is an attractive therapeutic target for kinase inhibitors or other approaches for patients with mutations of this gene, and preliminary studies suggest that mutantFLT3 cooperates with other leukemia oncogenes to confer a more aggressive phenotype.
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TLDR
The data on FL-stimulated leukemia cell growth underline the extensive heterogeneity of primary AML and ALL samples in terms of cytokine-inducible DNA synthesis that has been seen with other effective cytokines.
FLT3 in Human Hematologic Malignancies
TLDR
The clinical and biological significance of FLT3-mutations are summarized, the possibility of targetingFLT3 kinase for the treatment of leukemia is discussed and the possibility for targeting FLT2 kinase to treat leukocytosis is discussed.
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TLDR
The FL-FLT3 signaling system may play a certain, albeit probably not causal role in the development of human leukemias, and had significant anti-apoptotic, survival-promoting effects on primary AML cells and myeloid cell lines under serum-free culture conditions.
Ligand for FLT3/FLK2 receptor tyrosine kinase regulates growth of haematopoietic stem cells and is encoded by variant RNAs
TLDR
The purified ligand enhances the response of mouse stem cells and a primitive human progenitor cell population to other growth factors such as interleukins IL-3 and IL-6 and to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and also stimulates fetal thymocytes.
The role of FLT3 in haematopoietic malignancies
TLDR
Exploring the mechanism by which mutations in the FLT3 gene cause uncontrolled proliferation might lead to a better understanding of how cells become cancerous and provide insights for the development of new drugs.
FLT3 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines
TLDR
Not all cells withFLT3 ITD express significant amounts of the mutated receptor protein, signals downstream from wild-type and mutant FLT3 receptors are not 100% idential, and MV4-11 represents a model cell line for FLT 3 ITD signalling.
STK-1, the human homolog of Flk-2/Flt-3, is selectively expressed in CD34+ human bone marrow cells and is involved in the proliferation of early progenitor/stem cells.
TLDR
Data suggest that STK-1 may function as a growth factor receptor on hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells in normal human bone marrow cultures.
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TLDR
An analysis of the expression of the gene using amplification of reverse transcribed FLT3 mRNA by polymerase chain reaction shows thatFLT3 is expressed in various lymphohematopoietic cells and tissues, including a series of immature cell lines and leukemias of lymphocytic origin.
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