Mini ReviewCalcitonin

@article{Findlay2004MiniR,
  title={Mini ReviewCalcitonin},
  author={David M. Findlay and Patrick M. Sexton},
  journal={Growth Factors},
  year={2004},
  volume={22},
  pages={217 - 224}
}
Calcitonin (CT) is a 32 amino acid peptide synthesised in mammals in a number of tissues, especially the C cells of the thyroid gland. CT was discovered because of its ability to lower the concentration of plasma calcium, an action principally due to a potent inhibitory action of CT on osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. CT is thus used clinically in the treatment of bone disorders characterised by increased rates of bone resorption, including Paget’s disease, osteoporosis and hypercalcemia… 
Calcitonin and Bone Physiology: In Vitro, In Vivo, and Clinical Investigations
TLDR
The recent research studies carried out on genetically modified mice showed the inhibition of osteoclast activity by amylin, while astonishingly calcitonin plays its role by suppressing osteoblast and bone turnover.
The Activity of Peptides of the Calcitonin Family in Bone.
TLDR
Surprisingly, studies in genetically modified mice have demonstrated that the physiological role of calcitonin appears to be the inhibition of osteoblast activity and bone turnover, whereas amylin inhibits osteoclast activity.
The Calcitonin/Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Family in Invertebrate Deuterostomes
TLDR
The CT/CGRP family peptide that shows similar molecular structure and function with that of vertebrate CT has been identified from ascidian, Ciona intestinalis and the molecular function of the receptor complex formed by amphioxus CTR/CLR and a RAMP-like protein was clarified.
Age-Related Association of Calcitonin with Parameters of Anthropometry, Bone and Calcium Metabolism during Childhood.
TLDR
A unique association between CT and Ca in periods of rapid bone growth and point to a possible involvement of CT in promoting bone formation during the first year of life are suggested.
New Insights into the Regulation of CGRP-Family Receptors.
Expression of the CGRP Family of Neuropeptides and their Receptors in the Trigeminal Ganglion
TLDR
The findings demonstrate the specific ligand and receptor sites in the rat trigeminal ganglion, highlighting recognition mechanisms to facilitate drug development and compare peptides and receptors side-by-side in studies to help address questions of actions resulting from cross-reactivity between receptors.
The Calcitonin Receptor Plays a Major Role in Glucose Regulation as a Function of Dual Amylin and Calcitonin Receptor Agonist Therapy
TLDR
Calcitonin therapy regulates fasting blood glucose in a diabetic rat model, thereby underscoring the importance of calcitonin receptor activation as well as the known role of amylin receptor agonism in the potent metabolic benefits of this group of peptides.
Central control of energy balance by amylin and calcitonin receptor agonists and their potential for treatment of metabolic diseases.
TLDR
The current literature investigating the interaction of amylin/calcitonin receptor agonists with neurocircuits that induce the observed metabolic effects is reviewed and the status of drug development ofAmylin and calcitonin receptors agonists for the treatment of metabolic diseases is summarized.
Investigation of salmon calcitonin in regulating fibrosis‐related molecule production and cell‐substrate adhesion in frozen shoulder synovial/capsular fibroblasts
TLDR
It is demonstrated that sCT effectively improved the mRNA expression of fibrosis‐related molecules and decreased the enhanced cell‐substrate adhesion ability of frozen shoulder SCFs.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 65 REFERENCES
CALCITONIN.
TLDR
Therapeutic use of calcitonin is indicated in both perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with contraindications or intolerance to estrogen replacement therapy, Paget's disease, painful vertebral compression fractures, and steroid-induced osteopenia.
Physiological levels of calcitonin regulate the mouse osteoclast calcitonin receptor by a protein kinase Alpha-mediated mechanism.
TLDR
The changes in CTR messenger RNA confirm the findings in binding studies and demonstrate that CT treatment of OCLs results in decreased CTR synthesis through the PKA pathway, providing new insights into a dynamic relationship between circulating levels of CT and CTR expression in osteoclasts.
Increased bone mass is an unexpected phenotype associated with deletion of the calcitonin gene.
TLDR
Findings argue for dual roles for CT/CGRP gene products: prevention of bone resorption in hypercalcemic states and a regulatory role in bone formation.
Regulation by calcitonin and glucocorticoids of calcitonin receptor gene expression in mouse osteoclasts.
TLDR
The results show that GC and CT influence CTR expression by distinct mechanisms and provide the basis for identification of the cellular factors involved.
A recombinant human calcitonin receptor functions as an extracellular calcium sensor.
TLDR
A dual role is suggested for the calcitonin receptor as a hormone receptor and an extracellular calcium sensor in baby hamster kidney cells.
Endogenous calcitonin attenuates parathyroid hormone-induced cancellous bone loss in the rat.
TLDR
It is indicated that in the rat, endogenous CT has a protective effect against PTH-stimulated cancellous bone loss, but not cortical bone loss.
Phosphorylation of the Human Calcitonin Receptor by Multiple Kinases Is Localized to the C‐Terminus
TLDR
The protein kinase A and C inhibitors staurosporine, chelerythrine, and H‐89 had little effect on CT‐induced phosphorylation, suggesting that nonsecond messenger‐activated kinases are involved in hormone‐dependent CT receptor phosphorylated.
Cell cycle-dependent coupling of the calcitonin receptor to different G proteins.
TLDR
Calcitonin may induce different biological responses in target cells depending on their positions in the cell cycle, and a modulation of ligand-induced responses could be of importance in rapidly growing cell populations such as during embryogenesis, growth, and tumor formation.
Calcitonin Down-regulates E-cadherin Expression in Rodent Uterine Epithelium during Implantation*
TLDR
The results are consistent with the hypothesis that CT-induced reduction in E-cadherin expression may remodel the adherens junctions between epithelial cells, and this change in epithelial cell phenotype might be a critical event during the implantation of the blastocyst.
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