Mini-Review Signal Transduction from the Extracellular Matrix

Abstract

Adhesive interactions between cells and the insoluble meshwork of extracellular matrix proteins play a vital role in embryonic morphogenesis (33, 36, 94, 109, 135, 145), and in the regulation of gene expression in cells of the adult organism (1, 6, 105, 124). While the overall phenomenology ofextracellular matrix (ECM) 1 effects on cell differentiation is well known, the biochemical and molecular bases for these effects have remained elusive. It is clear that many of the interactions between cells and the ECM are mediated by the integrin family of cell surface receptors (2, 3, 13, 72). However, the precise mechanism(s) whereby signals from ECM proteins are transduced via integfins to the intraceUular machinery that controls cell growth, behavior, and differentiation, remains poorly defined. There are many compelling examples of control of cell differentiation and gene expression through adhesive interactions with extracellular matrix. In fibroblasts, cell attachment has been reported to rapidly increase expression of c-los and pro al(I) collagen messages (26, 27). Adhesion to fibronectin fragments, or cross-linking of the integfin oe5/~l fibronectin receptor with antibody, induced the expression of metalloprotease genes in fibroblastic cells; interestingly, intact fibronectin did not provoke this response nor did fibronectin fragments in solution (137). In a somewhat similar vein, stimulation of the C~v//~3 integrin in melanoma cells induced the expression of type IV collagenase and increased the invasive ability of these cells (115). The capacity of breast epithelial cells to express milk proteins in response to hormonal stimuli is quite dependent on the presence of an appropriate ECM (124). Studies in this system have led to the preliminary identification of matrix-dependent elements in the promoter region of the ~ casein gene (111). In the immune system, activation of T-lymphocytes through the T-cell antigen receptor is markedly enhanced by integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin or laminin (85, 97, 119). This process is part of a complex dialogue involving adhesive receptors occurring between mature T-cells and antigen presenting cells, as well as during lymphocyte differentiation (40, 132, 133). There is extensive signaling "cross talk" between

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@inproceedings{Juliano2002MiniReviewST, title={Mini-Review Signal Transduction from the Extracellular Matrix}, author={Rudolph L Juliano}, year={2002} }