Minerals formed by organisms.

  title={Minerals formed by organisms.},
  author={Heinz Adolf Lowenstam},
  volume={211 4487},
Organisms are capable of forming a diverse array of minerals, some of which cannot be formed inorganically in the biosphere. The initial precipitates may differ from the form in which they are finally stabilized, or during development of the organism one mineral may substitute for another. Biogenic minerals commonly have attributes which distinguish them from their inorganic counterparts. They fulfill important biological functions. They have been formed in ever-increasing amounts during the… 

Mineralization by Organisms and the Evolution of Biomineralization

An updated compilation of biogenic mineral diversity and distribution is presented and a comparison is made between pathologically- and normally-formed minerals. The known associations of different

Biomineralization: mineral formation by organisms

Organisms form many different types of minerals, with diverse shapes and sizes. These minerals fulfill a variety of functions. Inspired by the late H A Lowenstam, Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi have

Classification of Microbial Carbonates

The main groups of organisms participating in the formation of benthic microbial carbonates are bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. Three main processes are involved in the formation of microbial

8. Bacterial Biomineralization

A number of living organisms form mineral phases through a process termed biomineralization. Two end member mechanisms exist depending on the level of biological involvement. The first involves

Molecular Basis of Biomineralization in Pinctada fucata

Biomineralization is the accumulation and formation of minerals regulated by living organisms transforming into biological structures and tissues. This is an extremely widespread phenomenon since

A Bioinorganic View of the Biological Mineralization of Iron

A variety of mineralized iron deposits is now known to occur in a range of living organisms, extending from microorganisms to higher vertebrates. Minerals reported include magnetite, maghemite,

Mineralization in Organic Matrix Frameworks

  • A. Veis
  • Geology, Environmental Science
  • 2003
The primordial earth surface exposed minerals comprised mainly of carbonates, silicates and smaller amounts of phosphates. Weathering eventually led to the dissolution of the surface rock and the

The Use and Potential of Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Studies of Biological Mineralization

Biological mineralization may appear to be an unusual combination of ideas—biology and minerals—but it refers to a phenomenon that is now recognized as being widespread throughout the living




In investigating the influence of the matrix, the crystal types which form on decalcified matrices taken from various molluscan species and introduced into other species or recalcified in vitro are determined.

Lepidocrocite, an Apatite Mineral, and Magnetite in Teeth of Chitons (Polyplacophora)

X-ray diffraction patterns show that the mature denticles of three extant chiton species are composed of the mineral lepidocrocite and an apatite mineral, probably francolite, in addition to

Biologic Precipitation of Fluorite

The occurrence of fluorite in mysid statoliths confirms the earlier interpretations based on insufficient documentation, andfixation of fluorine in hard tissues of marine invertebrates is extensive in the shelf seawaters and minor in the bathyal zone of the oceans.

Aragonite and Calcite as Constituents of Adult Oyster Shells

Adult oyster shells are composed mainly of calcite, but there are five small areas of aragonite: the resilium, the two pads at which the adductor muscle is inserted, and the two pads at which

Characterization of 80-million-year-old mollusk shell proteins.

  • S. WeinerH. LowenstamL. Hood
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1976
Fossil glycoproteins of the soluble organic matrix are present in an 80-million-year-old mollusk shell from the Late Cretaceous Period and a particular repeating amino acid sequence was identified in the fossil glycoprotein.